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Observational studies suggest a correlation between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. However, the genetic overlap, causal relationships, and underlining mechanisms between PTSD and GIT disorders were absent.
We obtained genome-wide association study statistics for PTSD (23 212 cases, 151 447 controls), peptic ulcer disease (PUD; 16 666 cases, 439 661 controls), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD; 54 854 cases, 401 473 controls), PUD and/or GORD and/or medications (PGM; 90 175 cases, 366 152 controls), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; 28 518 cases, 426 803 controls), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; 7045 cases, 449 282 controls). We quantified genetic correlations, identified pleiotropic loci, and performed multi-marker analysis of genomic annotation, fast gene-based association analysis, transcriptome-wide association study analysis, and bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis.
PTSD globally correlates with PUD (rg = 0.526, p = 9.355 × 10−7), GORD (rg = 0.398, p = 5.223 × 10−9), PGM (rg = 0.524, p = 1.251 × 10−15), and IBS (rg = 0.419, p = 8.825 × 10−6). Cross-trait meta-analyses identify seven genome-wide significant loci between PTSD and PGM (rs13107325, rs1632855, rs1800628, rs2188100, rs3129953, rs6973700, and rs73154693); three between PTSD and GORD (rs13107325, rs1632855, and rs3132450); one between PTSD and IBS/IBD (rs4937872 and rs114969413, respectively). Proximal pleiotropic genes are mainly enriched in immune response regulatory pathways, and in brain, digestive, and immune systems. Gene-level analyses identify five candidates: ABT1, BTN3A2, HIST1H3J, ZKSCAN4, and ZKSCAN8. We found significant causal effects of GORD, PGM, IBS, and IBD on PTSD. We observed no reverse causality of PTSD with GIT disorders, except for GORD.
PTSD and GIT disorders share common genetic architectures. Our work offers insights into the biological mechanisms, and provides genetic basis for translational research studies.
Although ketamine can rapidly decrease suicidal ideation (SI), its neurobiological mechanism of action remains unclear. Several areas of the cingulate cortex have been implicated in SI; therefore, we aimed to explore the neural correlates of the anti-suicidal effect of ketamine with cingulate cortex functional connectivity (FC) in depression.
Forty patients with unipolar or bipolar depression with SI underwent six infusions of ketamine over 2 weeks. Clinical symptoms and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained at baseline and on day 13. Remitters were defined as those with complete remission of SI on day 13. Four pairs of cingulate cortex subregions were selected: the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), and posterior mid-cingulate cortex (pMCC), and whole-brain FC for each seed region was calculated.
Compared with non-remitters, remitters exhibited increased FC of the right pgACC–left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right aMCC–bilateral postcentral gyrus at baseline. A high area under the curve (0.91) indicated good accuracy of the combination of the above between-group differential FCs as a predictor of anti-suicidal effect. Moreover, the change of SI after ketamine infusion was positively correlated with altered right pgACC–left MOG FC in remitters (r = 0.66, p = 0.001).
Our findings suggest that the FC of some cingulate cortex subregions can predict the anti-suicidal effect of ketamine and that the anti-suicidal mechanism of action of ketamine may involve alteration of FC between the right pgACC and left MOG.
Building on recent developments in optimal distinctiveness (OD) research, we identify two dimensions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices – CSR scope conformity and CSR emphasis differentiation – and examine the antecedents of both. We theorize that private ownership and enhanced media coverage may increase scope conformity and emphasis differentiation, while such effects may be contingent on industrial context. In socially contested industries, the impact of private ownership on scope conformity will be mitigated, and the impact of media coverage on scope conformity will be amplified. Meanwhile, in highly competitive industries, the impact of private ownership and media coverage on emphasis differentiation will be mitigated. We test our predictions using a database of 942 Chinese publicly listed firms between 2008 and 2016. Our findings imply that the choice of optimal CSR strategy has to be made in accordance with the embedding context. The multidimensionality view of OD enables firms to better orchestrate firms’ strategic positioning along different dimensions of complex practices, which leads to better customization of societal expectations and the industrial competitive landscape.
The Eastern Depression in the Bayanhaote Basin in western Inner Mongolia has experienced multi-stage Meso-Cenozoic tectonic events and possesses considerable exploration potential. However, structural deformation patterns, sequences and the genesis of oil-bearing structures in the basin are still poorly understood. In this study, based on high-quality 2D seismic data and drilling and well-logging data, we elucidate the activities and structural styles of faults, the tectonic evolution and the distribution characteristics of styles, as well as assessing potential petroleum traps in the Eastern Depression. Five types of faults that were active at different stages of the Meso-Cenozoic faults have been recognized: long-lived normal faults active since the late Middle Jurassic; reverse faults and strike-slip faults active in the late Late Jurassic; normal faults active in the Early Cretaceous; normal faults active in the Oligocene; and negative inverted faults active in the Early Cretaceous and Oligocene. These faults constituted 12 geometric styles in NE-trending belts at various stratigraphic levels, and were formed by compression, strike-slip, extension and inversion. The temporal development of structural styles promoted the formation and reconstruction and finalization of structural traps, while regional unconformities and open reverse and strike-slip faults provided migration pathways for petroleum to fill the traps. In general, potential traps that formed by compressional movement and strike-slip movement in the late Late Jurassic are primarily faulted anticlines. Those traps developed in Carboniferous rocks and are located in the southwestern region of the Eastern Depression, being controlled by NNE-NE-striking reverse and transpressive faults.
A dominant feature of anxiety disorders is familial aggregation. However, the underlying mechanisms of between- and within-generational anxiety resemblance remain poorly understood. By disentangling the genetic v. environmental sources of familial resemblance in anxiety, we can help prevent within-family transmission of anxiety disorders. Therefore, data from both parents and twins are needed to obtain unbiased and detailed estimations of genetic and environmental sources of similarity between family members.
We examined data from 991 families with same-sex twins. Trait anxiety in twins was assessed via self-report and parent report, while parental trait anxiety was assessed via self-report. We established a nuclear twin family model and estimated genetic and environmental variances using two survey waves.
The results suggested that additive genetic (A), dominant genetic (D), and non-shared environmental (E) influences significantly contributed to trait anxiety, whereas familial environmental influences (F) and passive gene–environment correlations (rGE) did not. Sibling environmental influences (S) were only found in self-report data, and increased when genetic influences decreased from Wave 1 to Wave 2.
Our study highlights the important role of broad heritability in intrafamilial trait anxiety similarity. Parent–child resemblance occurred primarily due to shared genetic makeup rather than direct environmental transmission. Sibling-specific environments, as the only source of shared environments, need further investigation. These findings have both theoretical and practical significance for anxiety disorders. Future research can expand our understanding by examining the gene–environment interplay and sex differences.
Iridium (Ir) has an extremely high melting point (2443 °C), high chemical stability and is one of the most promising high-temperature materials. However, Ir is more difficult to process compared with other face-centered cubic metals, such as Ni and Al, which limits its applications. To solve this problem, we study the effect of 32 alloying elements (X) on stacking fault energy of dilute Ir-based alloys generated by shear deformation using the first-principles calculations. The investigation reveals that there are many alloying elements studied herein decrease the stacking fault energy of face-centered cubic (fcc) Ir, and the most effective element in reducing stacking fault energy of fcc Ir is Zn. The microscopic mechanism is caused by electron redistribution in the local stacking fault area. These results are expected to provide valuable guidance for the further design and application of Ir-based alloys.
To advance the utilization of solar thermal energy, a novel solar-driven microcapsule was designed by the combination of high-performance CuS nanoconverter and the microencapsulated n-Eicosane with a brookite TiO2 shell via in situ sol–gel method. The resultant n-Eicosane@TiO2/CuS microcapsules possessed excellent thermal properties with high latent heat density (171.7 J/g), high encapsulation efficiency (71.7%), and increased thermal conductivity (0.730 W/(m K)). SEM analysis clearly verified that CuS nanoparticles exhibited a uniform distribution on the surfaces. Most of all, the addition of CuS not only enlarged the absorption spectra from the UV to the visible and NIR region but also achieved high solar-to-thermal conversion efficiency (94.41%). Due to the high heat storage capability and solar irradiation utilization efficiency, this solar-driven microcapsule possesses great potential for the solar energy utilization.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
To examine and quantify the potential dose–response relationship between green tea intake and the risk of gastric cancer.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and VIP up to December 2015 without language restrictions.
A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies.
Five cohort studies and eight case–control studies.
Compared with the lowest level of green tea intake, the pooled relative risk (95 % CI) of gastric cancer was 1·05 (0·90, 1·21, I2=20·3 %) for the cohort studies and the pooled OR (95 % CI) was 0·84 (0·74, 0·95, I2=48·3 %) for the case–control studies. The pooled relative risk of gastric cancer was 0·79 (0·63, 0·97, I2=63·8 %) for intake of 6 cups green tea/d, 0·59 (0·42, 0·82, I2=1·0 %) for 25 years of green tea intake and 7·60 (1·67, 34·60, I2=86·5 %) for drinking very hot green tea.
Drinking green tea has a certain preventive effect on reducing the risk of gastric cancer, particularly for long-term and high-dose consumption. Drinking too high-temperature green tea may increase the risk of gastric cancer, but it is still unclear whether high-temperature green tea is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Further studies should be performed to obtain more detailed results, including other gastric cancer risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption and the dose of the effective components in green tea, to provide more reliable evidence-based medical references for the relationship between green tea and gastric cancer.
Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most attractive inorganic nanofillers in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for its large specific surface area and high proton conductivity. The proton conductivity of GO nanosheet is known to be orders of magnitude greater than the bulk GO, thus it is essential to improve the dispersion of GO nanosheets in the PEM matrix to achieve higher conductivity. In this study, we report a facile and effective method to fabricate a GO/sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membrane with well-dispersed GO nanosheets in SPEEK matrix by using electrospinning technique for direct methanol fuel cell application. The composite membrane exhibits improved proton conductivity, dimensional stability and methanol barrier property due to the presence of well-dispersed GOs. It is believed that the GO nanosheets can not only induce continuous channels for proton-conducting via Grotthuss mechanism, but also act as methanol barriers to hinder the methanol molecules from passing through the membrane.
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