To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Breast milk leptin plays a potential role in preventing childhood obesity. However, the associations of breast milk leptin with maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation are still unclear. We aimed to explore associations of breast milk leptin with maternal metabolic profiles in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation. A total of 332 participants were recruited for this retrospective cohort study. Breast milk samples were collected at approximately 6 weeks postpartum. Breast milk leptin and twenty-three metabolic profiles in pregnancy were measured in this study. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to gather dietary information during lactation. Both principal component analysis and the diet balance index were used to derive dietary patterns. Among twenty-three maternal metabolic profiles, maternal serum glucose (β = 1·61, P = 0·009), γ-glutamyl transferase (β = 0·32, P = 0·047) and albumin (β = −2·96, P = 0·044) in pregnancy were correlated with breast milk leptin. All dietary patterns were associated with breast milk leptin. Given the joint effects of maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation, only diet quality distance was significantly associated with leptin concentrations in breast milk (low level v. almost no diet problem: β = −0·46, P = 0·011; moderate/high level v. almost no diet problem: β = −0·43, P = 0·035). In conclusion, both maternal metabolism in pregnancy and dietary patterns during lactation were associated with breast milk leptin. Maternal diet balance during lactation was helpful to improve breast milk leptin concentration.
Genetic approaches are increasingly advantageous in characterizing treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). We aimed to identify TRS-associated functional brain proteins, providing a potential pathway for improving psychiatric classification and developing better-tailored therapeutic targets.
TRS-related proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) were conducted on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from CLOZUK and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC), which provided TRS individuals (n = 10,501) and non-TRS individuals (n = 20,325), respectively. The reference datasets for the human brain proteome were obtained from ROS/MAP and Banner, with 8,356 and 11,518 proteins collected, respectively. We then performed colocalization analysis and functional enrichment analysis to further explore the biological functions of the proteins identified by PWAS.
In PWAS, two statistically significant proteins were identified using the ROS/MAP and then replicated using the Banner reference dataset, including CPT2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.15 × 10−2 and PPWAS-Banner = 3.38 × 10−3) and APOL2 (PPWAS-ROS/MAP = 4.49 × 10−3 and PPWAS-Banner = 8.26 × 10−3). Colocalization analysis identified three variants that were causally related to protein expression in the human brain, including CCDC91 (PP4 = 0.981), PRDX1 (PP4 = 0.894), and WARS2 (PP4 = 0.757). We extended PWAS results from gene-based analysis to pathway-based analysis, identifying 14 gene ontology (GO) terms and the only candidate pathway for TRS, metabolic pathways (all P < 0.05).
Our results identified two protein biomarkers, and cautiously support that the pathological mechanism of TRS is linked to lipid oxidation and inflammation, where mitochondria-related functions may play a role.
We consider the stability of laminar high-Reynolds-number flow through a planar channel formed by a rigid wall and a heavy compliant wall under longitudinal tension with motion resisted by structural damping. Numerical simulations indicate that the baseline state (with Poiseuille flow and a flat wall) exhibits two unstable normal modes: the Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) mode and a surface-based mode which manifests as one of two flow-induced surface instabilities (FISI), known as travelling wave flutter (TWF) and static divergence (SD), respectively. In the absence of wall damping the system is unstable to TWF, where the neutrally stable wavelength becomes shorter as the wall mass increases. With wall damping, TWF is restricted to long wavelengths through interaction with the most unstable centre mode, while for wall damping greater than a critical value the system exhibits an SD mode with a two branch neutral stability curve; the critical conditions along the upper and lower branches are constructed in the limit of large wall damping. We compute the Reynolds–Orr and activation energy descriptions of these neutrally stable FISI by continuing the linear stability analysis to the following order in perturbation amplitude. We find that both FISI are primarily driven by the working of normal stress on the flexible wall, lower-branch SD has negative activation energy, while upper-branch SD approaches zero activation energy in the limit of large wall damping. Finally, we elucidate interaction between TS and TWF modes for large wall mass, resulting in stable islands within unstable regions of parameter space.
Numerous technologies have contributed to the recent development of agriculture, especially the advancement in hyperspectral remote sensing (HRS) constituted a revolution in crop monitoring. The widespread use of HRS to obtain crop parameters suggests the need for a review of research advances in this area. HRS offers new theories and methods for studying crop parameters, but much work needs to be done both experimentally and theoretically before we can truly understand the physical and chemical processes that predict these crop parameters. The study focuses on the following elements: 1) The article provides a relatively comprehensive introduction to HRS and how it can be applied to crop monitoring; 2) Current state-of-the-art techniques are summarized and analyzed to inform further advances in crop monitoring; 3) Opportunities and challenges for crop monitoring applications using HRS are discussed, and future research is summarized. Finally, through a comprehensive discussion and analysis, the article proposes new directions for using HRS to study crop characteristics, such as new data mining techniques including deep learning provide opportunities for efficient processing of large amounts of HRS data; combining the temporal and dynamic characteristics of crop parameters and vegetation growth processes will greatly improve the accuracy of crop parameter detection and monitoring; multidata fusion and multiscale data assimilation will become HRS monitoring. Multidata fusion and multiscale data assimilation will become another research hotspot for HRS monitoring of crop parameters.
The mumps resurgence has frequently been reported around the world in recent years, especially in many counties mumps vaccines have been widely used. This study aimed to describe the spatial epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Jiangsu, and provide a scientific basis for the implementation and adjustment of strategies to prevent and control mumps. The epidemiological characteristics were described with ratio or proportion. Spatial autocorrelation, Tango's flexible spatial scan statistics, and Kulldorff's elliptic spatiotemporal scan statistics were applied to identify the spatial autocorrelation, detect hot and cold spots of mumps incidence, and aggregation areas. A total of 172 775 cases were reported from 2004 to 2020 in Jiangsu. The general trend of mumps incidence is declining with a bimodal seasonal distribution identified mainly in summer and winter, respectively. Children aged 5–10 years old are the main risk group. A migration trend of hot spots from southeast to northwest over time was found. Similar high-risk aggregations were detected in the northwestern parts through spatial-temporal analysis with the most likely cluster time frame around 2019. Local medical and health administrations should formulate and implement targeted health care policies and allocate health resources more appropriately corresponding to the epidemiological characteristics of mumps.
The Eastern Depression in the Bayanhaote Basin in western Inner Mongolia has experienced multi-stage Meso-Cenozoic tectonic events and possesses considerable exploration potential. However, structural deformation patterns, sequences and the genesis of oil-bearing structures in the basin are still poorly understood. In this study, based on high-quality 2D seismic data and drilling and well-logging data, we elucidate the activities and structural styles of faults, the tectonic evolution and the distribution characteristics of styles, as well as assessing potential petroleum traps in the Eastern Depression. Five types of faults that were active at different stages of the Meso-Cenozoic faults have been recognized: long-lived normal faults active since the late Middle Jurassic; reverse faults and strike-slip faults active in the late Late Jurassic; normal faults active in the Early Cretaceous; normal faults active in the Oligocene; and negative inverted faults active in the Early Cretaceous and Oligocene. These faults constituted 12 geometric styles in NE-trending belts at various stratigraphic levels, and were formed by compression, strike-slip, extension and inversion. The temporal development of structural styles promoted the formation and reconstruction and finalization of structural traps, while regional unconformities and open reverse and strike-slip faults provided migration pathways for petroleum to fill the traps. In general, potential traps that formed by compressional movement and strike-slip movement in the late Late Jurassic are primarily faulted anticlines. Those traps developed in Carboniferous rocks and are located in the southwestern region of the Eastern Depression, being controlled by NNE-NE-striking reverse and transpressive faults.
To develop an equation that can estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion by using casual spot urine specimen for older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia and further to compare with the INTERSALT method, Kawasaki method and Tanaka method.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia provided their casual spot urine samples and 24-h urine samples between January 2015 and February 2017. Sex-specific equation was developed using linear forward stepwise regression analysis. Model fit was assessed using adjusted R2. Approximately half of all participants were randomly selected to validate the equation. Mean differences, intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used to evaluate the performance of all methods.
Pingluo County and Qingtongxia County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.
Older hypertensive participants in rural Ningxia.
Totally, 807 of 1120 invited participants provided qualified 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples. There was no statistical difference comparing the laboratory-based method against the new method and the INTERSALT method, while Kawasaki method had the largest bias with a mean difference of 40·81 g/d (95 % CI 39·27, 42·35 g/d). Bland–Altman plots showed similar pattern of the results.
The INTERSALT method and the new equation have the potential to estimate the 24-h urinary Na excretion in this study population. However, the extrapolation of the results to other population needs to be careful. Future research is required to establish a more reliable method to estimate 24-h urinary Na excretion.
Clay often has severe detrimental impacts on cement-based materials. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the mechanism causing the deterioration to improve the service life of cement-based materials. Based on accurate dimensional analysis, a mechanism that influences clay is proposed: the intercalation of the side chains of superplasticizer molecules in the interlayer space of the clay. To lessen this harmful effect, a new clay-resistant admixture (CRA) possessing cationic groups of small molecular size was synthesized through a novel dimensional design. The length and width of the side chains of this superplasticizer molecule were 9.50–17.50 and 0.25–0.40 nm, respectively, with a radius of ~3.74 nm in solvent, which is larger than the interlayer spacing of montmorillonite (i.e. 1.09–2.14 nm). The longitudinal and latitudinal lengths of the CRA molecule were 0.468 and 9.456 nm, respectively, ensuring intercalation in the interlayer of montmorillonite. The increase in interlayer spacing of the clay was 0.364 nm following addition of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) plus CRA and 0.632 nm following addition of PCE, which suggests that the CRA plays the role of a ‘sacrificial agent’ that is preferentially intercalated into the interlayer space of clay to further prevent the side chains of the superplasticizer molecules from entering the interlayer. The aim of this study was to propose a suitable means of synthesizing a new CRA to address the impact of clay through dimensional design and mechanism analysis, which contributes to the theoretical study and technological improvement of cement-based materials.
Evidence has suggested that honey intake has a beneficial impact on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings apply to adults with prediabetes is yet unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether honey intake is associated with a lower prevalence of prediabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18 281 participants (mean age 39·6 (sd 11·1) years; men, 51·5 %). Dietary intake was assessed through a validated 100-item FFQ. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria: impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or raised glycosylated Hb. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between honey consumption and prediabetes. As compared with those who almost never consumed honey, the multivariable OR of prediabetes were 0·94 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·02) for ≤3 times/week, 0·77 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·94) for 4–6 times/week and 0·85 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·99) for ≥1 time/d (Pfor trend < 0·01). These associations did not differ substantially in sensitivity analysis. Higher honey consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of prediabetes. More large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate this association.
During visual servoing space activities, the attitude of free-floating space robot may be disturbed due to dynamics coupling between the satellite base and the manipulator. And the disturbance may cause communication interruption between space robot and control center on earth. However, it often happens that the redundancy of manipulator is not enough to fully eliminate this disturbance. In this paper, a method named off-line optimizing visual servoing algorithm is innovatively proposed to minimize the base disturbance during the visual servoing process where the degrees-of-freedom of the manipulator is not enough for a zero-reaction control. Based on the characteristic of visual servoing process and the robot system modeling, the optimal control method is applied to achieve the optimization, and a pose planning method is presented to achieve a second-order continuity of quaternion getting rid of the interruption caused by ambiguity. Then simulations are carried out to verify the method, and the results show that the robot is controlled with optimized results during visual servoing process and the joint trajectories are smooth.
Deformable linear objects (DLOs) have a wide variety of applications in a range of fields. Their key characteristic is that they extend much further in one of their dimensions than in the other two. Accurate motion planning is particularly important in the case of DLOs used in robotics applications. In this paper, a new strategy for planning the motions of DLOs under multiple constraints is proposed. The DLO was modeled as Cosserat elastic rods so that the deformation is simulated accurately and efficiently. The control of the motion of the DLO was enhanced by supplementing one gripper installed at each end with additional supports. This allows DLOs to undergo complex deformations, and thus avoid collisions during motion. The appropriate number of supports and their positions were determined, and then a rapidly exploring random tree algorithm was used to search for the best path to guide the DLO toward its target destination. The motion of the simulated DLO is described as it is controlled using two grippers and specific numbers of supports. To prove that the proposed DLO motion planning strategy can successfully guide relatively long DLOs through complex environments without colliding with obstacles, a case study of the strategy was conducted when guiding a DLO through a puzzle.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is becoming a matter of concern around the world. However, the neural mechanism underlying IGD remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between the neuronal network of IGD participants and that of recreational Internet game users (RGU).
Imaging and behavioral data were collected from 18 IGD participants and 20 RGU under a probability discounting task. The independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA) were used to analyze the data.
Behavioral results showed the IGD participants, compared to RGU, prefer risky options to the fixed ones and spent less time in making risky decisions. In imaging results, the ICA analysis revealed that the IGD participants showed stronger functional connectivity (FC) in reward circuits and executive control network, as well as lower FC in anterior salience network (ASN) than RGU; for the GTA results, the IGD participants showed impaired FC in reward circuits and ASN when compared with RGU.
These results suggest that IGD participants were more sensitive to rewards, and they were more impulsive in decision-making as they could not control their impulsivity effectively. This might explain why IGD participants cannot stop their gaming behaviors even when facing severe negative consequences.
The effects of triboelectricity in a small-scale fluidized bed of polyethylene particles were investigated by imaging the particle layer in the vicinity of the column wall and by measuring the pressure drop across the bed. The average charge on the particles was altered by changing the relative humidity of the gas. A triboelectric charging model coupled with a computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD-DEM) model was utilized to simulate gas–particle flow in the bed. The electrostatic forces were evaluated based on a particle–particle particle–mesh method, accounting for the surface charge on the insulating walls. It was found that simulations with fixed and uniform charge distribution among the particles capture remarkably well both the agglomeration of the particles on the wall and the associated decrease in the pressure drop across the bed. With a dynamic tribocharging model, the charging rate had to be accelerated to render the computations affordable. Such simulations with an artificial acceleration significantly over-predict charge segregation and the wall becomes rapidly sheeted with a single layer of strongly charged particles.
Late Carboniferous magmatism in the Chinese Altai provides an important view of geodynamic processes active during crustal growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, five representative peraluminous granite plutons from the Chinese Altai were selected for systematic geochronological, geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic analyses (Table 1). These granites were emplaced between 449 and 327 Ma in an active subduction zone, and have moderate to high SiO2 (66.54–76.13 wt%), moderate Na2O+K2O (6.27–7.66 wt%), and high Al2O3 contents (12.43–16.18 wt%). All granite samples in this study showed significant decoupling of the Nd and Hf isotope systems. Results show negative εNd(t) values (−3.3 to −0.9), and predominantly positive εHf(t) values (+0.24 to +8.01, n=57) except for a few negative εHf(t) values (−7.44 to −0.03, n=9), high Mg# values (28.69–53.33), high Nd/Hf ratios (4.26–43.57), and enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g. Pb, Th, and U), suggesting that the granites were derived from the partial melting of oceanic sediments and the associated mantle wedge, with fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite. In situ zircon Hf isotopic analyses yield negative εHf(t) values from −30.6 to −13.7 for the zircon xenocrysts. The U–Pb ages and Hf isotopic ratios of these zircon xenocrysts were probably inherited from oceanic sediments. Zircon saturation temperatures suggest that these peraluminous granites were emplaced at 537–765°C. We propose that: (1) the Nd isotopic system more faithfully reflects the source of peraluminous magmas in the Chinese Altai than the Hf isotopic system, and (2) the oceanic sediment recycling was an important process during continental growth in the CAOB.
To examine and quantify the potential dose–response relationship between green tea intake and the risk of gastric cancer.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and VIP up to December 2015 without language restrictions.
A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of observational studies.
Five cohort studies and eight case–control studies.
Compared with the lowest level of green tea intake, the pooled relative risk (95 % CI) of gastric cancer was 1·05 (0·90, 1·21, I2=20·3 %) for the cohort studies and the pooled OR (95 % CI) was 0·84 (0·74, 0·95, I2=48·3 %) for the case–control studies. The pooled relative risk of gastric cancer was 0·79 (0·63, 0·97, I2=63·8 %) for intake of 6 cups green tea/d, 0·59 (0·42, 0·82, I2=1·0 %) for 25 years of green tea intake and 7·60 (1·67, 34·60, I2=86·5 %) for drinking very hot green tea.
Drinking green tea has a certain preventive effect on reducing the risk of gastric cancer, particularly for long-term and high-dose consumption. Drinking too high-temperature green tea may increase the risk of gastric cancer, but it is still unclear whether high-temperature green tea is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Further studies should be performed to obtain more detailed results, including other gastric cancer risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption and the dose of the effective components in green tea, to provide more reliable evidence-based medical references for the relationship between green tea and gastric cancer.
A lattice Boltzmann method is utilized for governing equations which control phase separation of binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction in presence of a shear flow in this paper. We first present the morphology modeling of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. We then validate the model by taking the unsheared binary fluids as an example. It is found that the results fit well with the references. The paper shows structures of the sheared system and gives the detailed analysis for the morphology of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. The phase separation of the domain structures with different chemical reaction rates is discussed. Through simulations of the sheared binary fluids, two interesting phenomena are observed, which do not exist in a binary mixture without reversible chemical reaction. One is that the same results appear in both low and high viscosity, and the other is that the domain growth exponent with both low and high viscosities presents wave due to the competition of the viscosity and phase separation. In addition, we find that the finite size effects resulting in the growth exponent decreasing appear faster than that of the unsheared blend at a large time when the size of domains is comparable with the lattice size.
Selecting high-yielding cultivars under drought is an important practice to improve crop production. Canopy temperature (T) shows a relative reliable association with grain yield. In this study, we compared the suitability of canopy T and other agronomic as well as physiological traits associated with grain yield under different water regimes. Field experiments over two seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013) were carried out under three water regimes, represented about 64, 76 and 89% of potential evapotranspiration, with 16 local winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in each season. Results showed that cultivars with higher yield usually performed consistently lower canopy T under three water regimes, while the relationships of grain yield with other agronomic or physiological traits were more influenced by soil moisture. In addition, the relationship between canopy T and grain yield varied with different growth stages: From the time of heading to early grain filling stages, a more significant negative linear relationship (p < 0.001) existed under the three irrigation levels.
Both diabetes and depression have become serious public health problems and are major contributors to the global burden of disease. People with diabetes have been shown to have higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to observe the differences in depression between older Chinese adults with known or unknown diabetes.
Data came from the national baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to assess depression. Participants with a history of diabetes diagnosis were considered to have known diabetes, and those with newly-diagnosed diabetes were considered to have unknown diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate odds ratio (OR) for depression in predictor variables.
Overall, 39.1% of the 2,399 participants with diabetes suffered from depression. The prevalence of depression was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in people with known diabetes (43.5%) than those with unknown diabetes (35.1%). The biggest differences between the two groups were found in the middle aged, in women, in the less educated and in married people. In known diabetes, people treated with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) coupled with oral western medicine (WM) and/or insulin had two-fold odds of depression compared to those without treatment.
The knowledge of having diabetes, treatments and suffering from other chronic diseases were associated with the higher prevalence of depression in people with known diabetes compared to those with unknown diabetes. Prevention of depression in diabetics should receive more attention in the middle aged, women and the less education.
Graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most attractive inorganic nanofillers in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for its large specific surface area and high proton conductivity. The proton conductivity of GO nanosheet is known to be orders of magnitude greater than the bulk GO, thus it is essential to improve the dispersion of GO nanosheets in the PEM matrix to achieve higher conductivity. In this study, we report a facile and effective method to fabricate a GO/sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membrane with well-dispersed GO nanosheets in SPEEK matrix by using electrospinning technique for direct methanol fuel cell application. The composite membrane exhibits improved proton conductivity, dimensional stability and methanol barrier property due to the presence of well-dispersed GOs. It is believed that the GO nanosheets can not only induce continuous channels for proton-conducting via Grotthuss mechanism, but also act as methanol barriers to hinder the methanol molecules from passing through the membrane.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.