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This experiment was conducted to investigate whether dietary chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) could attenuate high-fat (HF) diet-induced growth retardation, lipid accumulation and bile acid (BA) metabolism disorder in the liver of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Yellow catfish (initial weight: 4·40 (sem 0·08) g) were fed four diets: the control (105·8 g/kg lipid), HF diet (HF group, 159·6 g/kg lipid), the control supplemented with 0·9 g/kg CDCA (CDCA group) and HF diet supplemented with 0·9 g/kg CDCA (HF + CDCA group). CDCA supplemented in the HF diet significantly improved growth performance and feed utilisation of yellow catfish (P < 0·05). CDCA alleviated HF-induced increment of hepatic lipid and cholesterol contents by down-regulating the expressions of lipogenesis-related genes and proteins and up-regulating the expressions of lipololysis-related genes and proteins. Compared with the control group, CDCA group significantly reduced cholesterol level (P < 0·05). CDCA significantly inhibited BA biosynthesis and changed BA profile by activating farnesoid X receptor (P < 0·05). The contents of CDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased with the supplementation of CDCA (P < 0·05). HF-induced elevation of cholic acid content was significantly attenuated by the supplementation of CDCA (P < 0·05). Supplementation of CDCA in the control and HF groups could improve the liver antioxidant capacity. This study proved that CDCA could improve growth retardation, lipid accumulation and BA metabolism disorder induced by HF diet, which provided new insight into understanding the physiological functions of BA in fish.
Most childhood disabilities are caused by congenital factors such as birth defects. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of periconceptional nutrition intervention on the prevention of congenital disability among Chinese children using the National Birth Defects Intervention Project as a natural experiment. We obtained individual-level data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability, a nationally representative survey, and 110 365 children born between September 1999 and August 2003 were included for analysis. Difference-in-differences estimates of the project effects on congenital disability were captured by exploiting temporal variation in the timing of project exposure across four birth cohorts along with geographical variation in project category at the province level. The findings contribute to an emerging body of evidence showing that prenatal micronutrient intervention before and during early pregnancy could substantially reduce the risk of congenital disability in childhood (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·94). The National Birth Defects Intervention Project improved the awareness of reproductive health and disability prevention in the population. It highlights the need for a potential policy change focusing on early-life health investment in China.
Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959–1961 as a natural experiment.
We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Famine severity was defined as cohort size shrinkage index. The famine effect on adult schizophrenia was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts.
Compared with the reference cohort of 1965, famine cohorts (1959–1962) had significantly higher odds (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.00; P = 0.014) of schizophrenia in the rural population. After adjusting for multiple covariates, this association remained significant (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.98; P = 0.018). We did not observe statistically significant differences in odds of schizophrenia among famine cohorts compared with the reference cohort in the urban population.
Prenatal malnutrition exposure has a detrimental impact on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood in the rural population. Further studies were needed to investigate corresponding mechanisms on this topic.
Maternal exposure to major stressors during pregnancy has been found to increase the risk of neurodevelopmental, cognitive and psychiatric disorders in the offspring. However, the association between prenatal exposure to earthquake and the risk of adult schizophrenia has yet to be examined.
To explore the potential long-term effects of prenatal exposure to maternal stress on the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood, using the Great Tangshan Earthquake in 1976 as a natural experiment.
We obtained data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and analysed 94 410 Chinese individuals born between 1975 and 1979. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the earthquake effects on schizophrenia by exploiting temporal variation in the timing of earthquake exposure across four birth cohorts born between 1975 and 1979, along with geographical variation in earthquake severity at the prefecture level. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists using the ICD-10 classification. Earthquake severity was measured by seismic intensity.
Earthquake cohort who experienced prenatal exposure to felt earthquake had higher risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio, 3.38; 95% CI 1.43–8.00) compared with the unexposed reference cohort. After specifying the timing of exposure by the trimester of pregnancy, prenatal exposure to felt earthquake during the first trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of adulthood schizophrenia significantly (odds ratio, 7.45; 95% CI 2.83–19.59).
Prenatal (particularly early pregnancy) exposure to maternal stress after a major disaster substantially affects the mental health of Chinese adults.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
Chinese youth represent a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, but there is little understanding of their sexual behaviours. Using nationally representative data, this study examines the social and demographic correlates of condom use by Chinese youth at sexual debut. It also examines the relationship context of condom use at sexual debut. The results indicate that condom use at sexual debut is very low in China, confirming that youth are a high-risk group. The results demonstrate that age and educational attainment are the primary indicators of condom use. Early sexual debut associates with a greater risk of unsafe sex at sexual debut and higher educational attainment increases the likelihood of self-protecting behaviours. The likelihood of self-protection also increases when sexual partners plan their sexual debut or discuss contraception beforehand. The results suggest that interventions are needed to provide youth with better knowledge about self-protection.
To examine the association between the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and maternal serum vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine in a high-risk area of China.
A case–control study was carried out in Luliang mountain area of Shanxi Province.
A total of eighty-four NTD pregnancies and 110 matched controls were included in the study; their serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent immunoenzyme assay and total homocysteine concentrations by fluorescent polarisation immunoassay.
Serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations were lower in NTD-affected pregnant women than in controls (P < 0·01). Serum total homocysteine was higher in the NTD group than in controls at less than 21 weeks of gestation (P < 0·01). Adjusted odds ratios revealed that women with lower vitamin B12 (adjusted OR=4·96; 95 % CI 1·94, 12·67) and folate (adjusted OR=3·23; 95 % CI 1·33, 7·85) concentrations had a higher risk of NTD compared to controls. Based on dietary analysis, less consumption of meat, egg or milk, fresh vegetables and fruit intake would increase the risk of NTD.
Lower serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 are related to the increased risk of NTD in high-risk populations. Both folate and vitamin B12 intake insufficiency could contribute to the increased risk of NTD. A dietary supplement, combining folate and vitamin B12, might be an effective measure to decrease the NTD incidence in these areas.
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