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Few studies have assessed the characteristics of spousal psychopathologies among parents of schoolchildren with and without psychological disorders (PD) in China.
Parental symptoms were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in 275 mothers and 278 fathers of 298 schoolchildren with PDs diagnosed in a population survey and in 825 mothers and 834 fathers of 894 schoolchildren without PDs as a 1:3 matched comparison group. Spousal GHQ scores were compared. Childhood PD type, presence of childhood comorbidities, and multiple parental and family characteristics were examined as predictors for parental GHQ scores by multiple linear regression analyses.
The GHQ scores were significantly higher among mothers and fathers of children with any PD. Maternal GHQ scores were higher than paternal scores and significantly correlated with paternal GHQ scores in both groups. Spousal GHQ, personal PD history, and childhood PD comorbidity were significant independent predictors of both parents’ GHQ scores. There were also significant associations among parental chronic disease, low family income, and paternal and maternal GHQ score, as well as among low maternal education, less common disorder (LCD) prevalence in children and maternal GHQ score. The rate of GHQ score ≥3 for both parents was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (15.1 vs.7.0%).
Parents of children with any PD type demonstrate significantly elevated psychopathologies, and psychopathology tends to occur concomitantly and resemble that of the other spouse. Screening and treatment of parental psychiatric symptoms will benefit all family members.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Laser-driven magnetic reconnection (LDMR) occurring with self-generated B fields has been experimentally and theoretically studied extensively, where strong B fields of more than megagauss are spontaneously generated in high-power laser–plasma interactions, which are located on the target surface and produced by non-parallel temperature and density gradients of expanding plasmas. For properties of the short-lived and strong B fields in laser plasmas, LDMR opened up a new territory in a parameter regime that has never been exploited before. Here we review the recent results of LDMR taking place in both high and low plasma beta environments. We aim to understand the basic physics processes of magnetic reconnection, such as particle accelerations, scale of the diffusion region, and guide field effects. Some applications of experimental results are also given especially for space and solar plasmas.
Microbial metabolites have been identified as a promising class of natural herbicides due to their effective control against weeds and a relatively low environmental impact. Here we report on the potency and crop safety of a natural compound with herbicidal properties, the metabolite SPRI-70014 from Streptomyces griseolus CGMCC 1370. The compound showed excellent herbicidal activities on various broadleaf and gramineous weeds in both greenhouse and field trials. In germination inhibition experiments, SPRI-70014 inhibited the emergence of both root and shoot at 1 mg L−1. At a dose of 31.3 g ai ha−1, SPRI-70014 provided effective control over most broadleaf weeds in greenhouse trials. Observations on absorption and translocation using a cucumber plant model system indicated that SPRI-70014 could be absorbed by the root but only partly by the stem. Field trials showed that SPRI-70014 provided effective control over most weed species tested at a dose of 1,000 g ai ha−1. Crop safety experiments showed that the compound had no harmful effect on peanut or wheat plants at doses up to 2,000 g ai ha−1. These results indicated that this compound could be developed as a potential POST herbicide for control of broadleaf weeds in peanut and wheat fields.
Optics surface phase defects induced intensity modulation in high-power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research is studied. Calculations and experiments reveal an exact mapping of the modulation patterns and the optics damage spot distributions from the surface phase defects. Origins are discussed during the processes of optics manufacturing and diagnostics, revealing potential improvements for future optics manufacturing techniques and diagnostic index, which is meaningful for fusion level laser facility construction and its operation safety.
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