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Endometrial injury is an important cause of intrauterine adhesion (IUA), amenorrhea and infertility in women, with limited effective therapies. Recently, stem cells have been used in animal experiments to repair and improve injured endometrium. To date, our understanding of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in endometrial injury repair and their further therapeutic mechanisms is incomplete. Here, we examined the benefit of ADSCs in restoration of injured endometrium by applying a rat endometrial injury model. The results revealed by immunofluorescence showed that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled ADSCs can differentiate into endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. At 30 days after ADSCs transplantation, injured endometrium was significantly improved, with increased microvessel density, endometrial thickness and glands when compared with the model group. Furthermore, the fertility of rats with injured endometrium in ADSCs group was improved and had a higher conception rate (60% vs 20%, P = 0.014) compared with the control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group. However, there was no difference in the control group compared with the sham group. In addition, expression levels of the oestrogen receptor Eα/β (ERα, ERβ) and progesterone receptor (PR) detected by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were higher in the ADSCs group than in the PBS group. Taken together, these results suggested that ADSC transplantation could improve endometrial injury as a novel therapy for IUA.
Some rare microscopic cycloneuralians are present in the Cambrian of South China, represented by Eopriapulites and Eokinorhynchus (both early Cambrian), fossil embryos of Markuelia (middle to late Cambrian), and palaeoscolecids (early to late Cambrian). Among them, palaeoscolecids are relatively diverse and abundant. Here, we describe new material of three-dimensionally phosphatized and microscopic cycloneuralians from the Paibian Stage of Wangcun Lagerstätte, western Hunan, South China. New material includes fossil embryos assignable to Markuelia sp., two other types of fossil embryos, and three species of palaeoscolecids, including Dispinoscolex decorus Duan, Dong, and Donoghue, 2012, Schistoscolex hunanensis Duan, Dong, and Donoghue, 2012, and Austroscolex sinensis new species. The palaeoscolecid fragments differ mainly in size and armor of the trunk annuli. Since Eokinorhynchus and Eopriapulites occurred the earliest among the Cambrian cycloneuralians, it is proposed here that: (1) cycloneuralians originated in the Cambrian Fortunian small shelly faunas rather than in the early Cambrian macrobenthos, (2) ancestral cycloneuralians may have simple trunk armor, and (3) Eopriapulites represents an ancestral cycloneuralian.
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