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Preterm birth is a global health problem and associated with increased risk of long-term developmental impairments, but findings on the adverse outcomes of prematurity have been inconsistent.
Data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We identified 1706 preterm children and 1865 matched individuals as Control group and compared brain structure (MRI data), cognitive function and mental health symptoms.
Results showed that preterm children had higher psychopathological risk and lower cognitive function scores compared to controls. Structural MRI analysis indicated that preterm children had higher cortical thickness in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal and occipital gyrus; smaller volumes in the temporal and parietal gyrus, cerebellum, insula and thalamus; and smaller fiber tract volumes in the fornix and parahippocampal-cingulum bundle. Partial correlation analyses showed that gestational age and birth weight were associated with ADHD symptoms, picvocab, flanker, reading, fluid cognition composite, crystallized cognition composite and total cognition composite scores, and measures of brain structure in regions involved with emotional regulation, attention and cognition.
These findings suggest a complex interplay between psychopathological risk and cognitive deficits in preterm children that is associated with changes in regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity among cortical and limbic brain regions critical for cognition and emotional well-being.
Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is reported to be associated with cancer development. To investigate the roles ANXA2 plays during the development of cancer, the RNAi method was used to inhibit the ANXA2 expression in caco2 (human colorectal cancer cell line) and SMMC7721 (human hepatocarcinoma cell line) cells. The results showed that when the expression of ANXA2 was efficiently inhibited, the growth and motility of both cell lines were significantly decreased, and the development of the motility relevant microstructures, such as pseudopodia, filopodia, and the polymerization of microfilaments and microtubules were obviously inhibited. The cancer cell apoptosis was enhanced without obvious significance. The possible regulating pathway in the process was also predicted and discussed. Our results suggested that ANXA2 plays important roles in maintaining the malignancy of colorectal and hepatic cancer by enhancing the cell proliferation, motility, and development of the motility associated microstructures of cancer cells based on a possible complicated signal pathway.
In evolution, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher level phylogeny of arctoides carnivore mammals. The red panda inhabits certain Asian countries only and its numbers are decreasing. Therefore, the development of feasible ways to preserve this species is necessary. Genetic resource cryopreservation and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have been used extensively to rescue this endangered species. The present study describes the establishment, for the first time, of a red panda ear fibroblast cell line, which was then cryopreserved, thawed and cultured. Through micromanipulation, interspecies embryos were reconstructed using the cryopreserved–thawed fibroblasts of the red panda as the donor and rabbit oocytes as recipients. A total of 194 enucleated rabbit oocytes were reconstructed with red panda ear fibroblasts; enucleated oocytes were activated without fusion as the control. The results show that the fibroblast cell line was established successfully by tissue culture and then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Supplementation with 20% fetal bovine serum and 8% dimethyl sulphoxide in basic medium facilitated the cryopreservation. The interspecies embryos were successfully reconstructed. The cleavage, morulae and blastocyst rates after in vitro culture were 71, 47 and 23% (31/194), respectively. This study indicated that a somatic cell line could be established and cryopreserved from red panda and that rabbit cytoplast supports mitotic cleavage of the red panda karyoplasts and is capable of reprogramming the nucleus to achieve blastocysts.
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