In 1994 and 1995 the authors studied Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa populations in Inner Mongolia, China, conducting interviews and making field observations in eight counties along the national boundary between Mongolia and China. Mongolian gazelle distribution was estimated to cover approximately 73, 152 sq km, which was only 25.2 per cent of that in 1950–70. The adult malefemale sex ratio was 1: 4, and the average herd size 923.3 individuals in November/December 1994 and 23.1 in March/April 1995. The gazelles regularly migrate from Mongolia into China from October onwards and return to Mongolia in late February. Hunting is a major threat to the survival of the species.