The effects of non-flooded plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) and polymer-coated urea (PCU) on rice yield, soil properties, and weed diversity were investigated in experimental plots of rice monoculture in Lanxi, China. The combination of PM and PCU increased rice yield. Compared with traditional flooded cultivation, under PM, soil pH remained higher, but decreased soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium in the 0- to 10-cm soil layer. Soil fertility influenced winter weed communities, with hairy bittercress, Asian mazus, and shortawn foxtail being the most abundant species. Multivariate analysis indicated that changes in the winter weed species diversity were primarily due to exchangeable potassium. PCU had no significant influence on weed diversity, while plots without nitrogen fertilizer had higher spring-germinating weed density.