To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To better understand mechanisms underlying the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety, we used a prospective adoption design to examine the roles of genetic influences (inferred from birth mothers' social phobia) and rearing environment (adoptive mothers' and fathers' responsiveness) on the development of socially inhibited, anxious behaviors in children between 18 and 27 months of age. The sample consisted of 275 adoption-linked families, each including an adopted child, adoptive parents, and a birth mother. Results indicated that children whose birth mothers met criteria for the diagnosis of social phobia showed elevated levels of observed behavioral inhibition in a social situation at 27 months of age if their adoptive mothers provided less emotionally and verbally responsive rearing environments at 18 months of age. Conversely, in the context of higher levels of maternal responsiveness, children of birth mothers with a history of social phobia did not show elevated levels of behavioral inhibition. These findings on maternal responsiveness were replicated in a model predicting parent reports of child social anxiety. The findings are discussed in terms of gene–environment interactions in the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety.
Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes.
The main aim of this study was to develop and optimize a questionnaire-based zygosity determination method in Chinese adolescent twins. Participants were 471 pairs of same-sex twins (345 monozygotic, 126 dizygotic) with a mean age of 14.56 years (SD = 2.62). A second sample was recruited for cross-validation, including 382 pairs of same-sex twins (261 monozygotic, 121 dizygotic) with a mean age of 12.53 years (SD = 2.22). The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions dealing with co-twin similarity or frequency of confusion. Two means were put forward to improve the predictive accuracy of the questionnaire — adding parent-reports to the analysis, and using a 2-point rather than 3-point response format. DNA genotyping was performed on nine short tandem repeat loci, with an estimated zygosity classification accuracy very close to 100%. The validity of all questionnaires was assessed by being compared to the results of DNA analysis. Results of stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the predictive accuracy of the 3-point self-reported questionnaire is 83.8%. Using parent-reports and 2-point scale led to 3.9% and 4.6% increase in predictive accuracy, respectively. When using the parent-reports and children's self-reports jointly, the predictive accuracy was enhanced to 90.6%. For the cross-validation, the equations and cut-offs derived from the first sample led to an acceptable accuracy (91.3%) in the second sample. In conclusion, the method we developed can be used in future studies among Chinese adolescent twins. Multiple-rater and 2-point response format were suggested for all twin studies for enhancing the predictive accuracy of questionnaires.
The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N = 359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.
The current study examines the interplay between parental overreactivity and children's genetic backgrounds as inferred from birth parent characteristics on the development of negative emotionality during infancy, and in turn, to individual differences in externalizing problems in toddlerhood. The sample included 361 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Data were collected when the children were 9, 18, and 27 months old. Results indicated links between individual levels and changes in negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood to externalizing problems early in the third year of life. Findings also revealed an interaction between birth mother negative affect and adoptive mother overreactive parenting on children's negative emotionality. This Genotype × Environment interaction predicted externalizing problems indirectly through its association with negative emotionality and revealed stronger effects of genetic risk for children with less overreactive parenting from their mothers. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.
This study examined the developmental cascade of both genetic and environmental influences on toddlers' behavior problems through the longitudinal and multigenerational assessment of psychosocial risk. We used data from the Early Growth and Development Study, a prospective adoption study, to test the intergenerational transmission of risk through the assessment of adoptive mother, adoptive father, and biological parent depressive symptoms on toddler behavior problems. Given that depression is often chronic, we control for across-time continuity and find that in addition to associations between adoptive mother depressive symptoms and toddler externalizing problems, adoptive father depressive symptoms when the child is 9 months of age were associated with toddler problems and associated with maternal depressive symptoms. Findings also indicated that a genetic effect may indirectly influence toddler problems through prenatal pregnancy risk. These findings help to describe how multiple generations are linked through genetic (biological parent), timing (developmental age of the child), and contextual (marital partner) pathways.
This study investigated the prospective links of negative life events and parent–child closeness with depressive symptoms among siblings using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically informative design. The sample consisted of 756 adolescents (378 sibling pairs) who participated in two waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Project. Sibling pairs with varying degree of genetic relatedness (i.e., monozygotic, dizygotic, full siblings, half siblings, and genetically unrelated siblings) were included. The results showed that negative life events, both personal and family life events, and parent–child closeness at Time 1 were significantly associated with depressive symptoms at Time 2 after accounting for the intrapair correlations between siblings. The effects remained significant after controlling for the levels of preexisting depressive symptoms. More importantly, closeness with mothers, but not with fathers, moderated the effects of both personal and family negative life events on subsequent depressive symptoms.
This 11-year longitudinal study models the trajectories of depressive
symptoms among approximately 550 females and males raised in divorced and
nondivorced families in the rural Midwest. Using multilevel analyses, we
demonstrate that, first, depressive symptoms changed according to a
curvilinear pattern, especially for females; they increased during early
to midadolescence and then declined in late adolescence to young
adulthood. Second, compared with males, females experienced a greater
number of depressive symptoms in adolescence and early adulthood. Third,
children who experienced parental divorce by age 15 manifested a sharper
increase in depressive symptoms compared to those from nondivorced
families. Fourth, stressful life events children experienced shortly after
parental divorce mediated the effect of parental divorce on depressive
symptoms. Fifth and finally, time-varying stressful life events,
particularly those related to relationship and personal loss, were
significantly associated with the trajectories of depressive symptoms.During the past several years, support for this
research has come from multiple sources including the National Institute
of Mental Health (MH00567, MH19734, MH43270, MH48165, MH51361), the
National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA05347), the Bureau of Maternal and
Child Health (MCJ-109572), the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on
Successful Adolescent Development among Youth in High-Risk Settings, the
Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station (Project No. 3320),
and the California Agriculture Experiment Station
I am pretty confused. I wonder whether I am weird or normal. My body is starting to change. I get nervous in the locker room during PE class.
Mike, age 11
I am fourteen already. But I still look like a kid. I got teased a lot, especially by other guys. I am always the last one picked for sides in basketball because I am so short. Girls don't seem to be interested in me either because most of them are taller than I am.
Robert, age 14
Although pubertal development in boys has fascinated people for centuries, scientific inquiry into this area did not begin until the middle of the twentieth century. Approximately a dozen well-researched articles have appeared in the past decade that provide excellent overviews on the study of psychosocial implications of pubertal changes (e.g., Alsaker, 1995, 1996; Brooks-Gunn, Graber, and Paikoff, 1994; Brooks-Gunn, Petersen, and Compas, 1995; Brooks-Gunn and Reiter, 1990; Buchanan, Eccles, and Becker, 1992; Connolly, Paikoff, and Buchanan, 1996; Graber, Petersen, and Brooks-Gunn, 1996; Paikoff and Brooks-Gunn, 1991; Susman, 1997; Susman and Petersen, 1992). This chapter will focus on studies of the psychosocial implications of pubertal changes in boys; it will not be an exhaustive review, but, rather, will serve to highlight some of the important areas of research related to pubertal changes among boys. This chapter is structured in five sections. First, the physical and physiological changes that boys experience during puberty will be discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.