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This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis of patients with alcoholic Marchiafava–Bignami disease (MBD), a rare neurological disorder commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, in Chongqing, China.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 21 alcoholic MBD patients treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University between 2012 and 2022.
The study included 21 patients with alcoholic MBD who had a mean age of 59 ± 9.86 years and an average drinking history of 35.48 ± 8.65 years. Acute onset was observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The primary clinical signs observed were psychiatric disorders (66.7%), altered consciousness (61.9%), cognitive disorders (61.9%), and seizures (42.9%). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed long T1 and long T2 signal changes in the corpus callosum, with lesions predominantly found in the genu (76.2%) and splenium (71.4%) of the corpus callosum. The poor prognosis group demonstrated an increased incidence of altered consciousness (100% vs 50%, P = 0.044), pyramidal signs (80% vs 18.8%, P = 0.011), and pneumonia (100% vs 31.3%, P = 0.007). Patients with a longer drinking history (45.0 ± 10.0 years vs 32.69 ± 5.99 years, p = 0.008) and a lower thiamine dose (p = 0.035) had a poorer prognosis at 1 year.
This study identified altered consciousness, pyramidal signs, and pneumonia as predictors of a poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic MBD. A longer duration of alcohol consumption and inadequate thiamine supplementation were associated with a poorer prognosis.
Mars exploration motivates the search for extraterrestrial life, the development of space technologies, and the design of human missions and habitations. Here, we seek new insights and pose unresolved questions relating to the natural history of Mars, habitability, robotic and human exploration, planetary protection, and the impacts on human society. Key observations and findings include:
– high escape rates of early Mars' atmosphere, including loss of water, impact present-day habitability;
– putative fossils on Mars will likely be ambiguous biomarkers for life;
– microbial contamination resulting from human habitation is unavoidable; and
– based on Mars' current planetary protection category, robotic payload(s) should characterize the local martian environment for any life-forms prior to human habitation.
Some of the outstanding questions are:
– which interpretation of the hemispheric dichotomy of the planet is correct;
– to what degree did deep-penetrating faults transport subsurface liquids to Mars' surface;
– in what abundance are carbonates formed by atmospheric processes;
– what properties of martian meteorites could be used to constrain their source locations;
– the origin(s) of organic macromolecules;
– was/is Mars inhabited;
– how can missions designed to uncover microbial activity in the subsurface eliminate potential false positives caused by microbial contaminants from Earth;
– how can we ensure that humans and microbes form a stable and benign biosphere; and
– should humans relate to putative extraterrestrial life from a biocentric viewpoint (preservation of all biology), or anthropocentric viewpoint of expanding habitation of space?
Studies of Mars' evolution can shed light on the habitability of extrasolar planets. In addition, Mars exploration can drive future policy developments and confirm (or put into question) the feasibility and/or extent of human habitability of space.
Inequalities on partial traces of positive semidefinite matrices are studied. Extensions of several existing inequalities on the determinant of partial traces are then obtained. Particularly, we improve a determinantal inequality given by Lin [Canad. Math. Bull. 59(2016)].
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
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