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The Qieganbulake deposit associated with a mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex in the Kuluketage block is not only the world’s second-largest vermiculite deposit, but also a medium-size carbonatite-related phosphate deposit. Field observations, radiometric dating results and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes reveal that the parental magmas of the carbonatite and mafic–ultramafic rocks are cogenetic and formed synchronously at c. 810 Ma. Geochemical characteristics and Sr–Nd–Hf–S isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70581–0.70710; ϵNd(t) = −0.20 to −11.80; ϵHf(t) = −7.5 to −10.3; δ34S = +0.7 ‰ to +3.0 ‰ (some sulfides with high δ34S values (+3.2 to +6.6) were formed by late hydrothermal sulfur)), in combination with mineral compositions and previous research, strongly indicate that the Qieganbulake mafic–ultramafic–carbonatite complex formed via extensive crystal fractionation/cumulation and liquid immiscibility of a carbonated tholeiitic magma, possibly derived from partial melting of an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle previously modified by slab-released fluids and sediment input in a continental rift setting. The coupled enriched Sr–Nd isotopic signatures, in combination with previous research, suggest that the enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle could have been metasomatized by asthenospheric mantle melts to different degrees. The Qieganbulake carbonatite-related phosphate ores were the products of normal fractional crystallization/cumulation of P–Fe3+ complex enriched carbonatite magma in high oxygen fugacity conditions, which was generated by liquid immiscibility of CO2–Fe–Ti–P-rich residual magma undergoing high differentiation.
In this paper we investigate the statics and the dynamics of large-viscosity ligaments attached to a rod and drawn out of a pure-liquid bath. Following the similar work of films pulling out of a bath (Champougny et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017, pp. 499–524), a one-dimensional model is applied to describe the ligaments drawn at constant velocities. We focus on the whole drawing dynamics of the ligament up to breakup, for which the breakup height is determined. The breakup height coincides with the maximum static meniscus height for very slow drawing, whose process can be described by quasi-static solutions. We present the numerical results of the static menisci and analytically unravel the mechanism in the low gravity case. Starting from a stable static meniscus, the breakup height of faster drawing depends separately on the rod radius and the drawing velocity, the latter dependency being fully determined by considering the agravic limit. Next, it is shown that the entire lifetime of the ligament drawing can be sequenced into a ductility stage, a capillarity stage and a pinch-off stage, the latter being shown to be almost instantaneous. The ductility and capillarity stages are decorrelated with the help of an approximate solution of the ductility stage, and the transition between the two stages corresponds to the time at which the capillarity-induced contraction velocity exceeds the ductility-induced one. The one-dimensional predictions of the breakup height and the entrained liquid volume attached to the rod quantitatively agree with experimental results of silicone oil ligaments, and the deviations are rationalized in comparison with a two-dimensional model.
A 1178 J near diffraction limited 527 nm laser is realized in a complete closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) controlled off-axis multi-pass amplification laser system. Generated from a fiber laser and amplified by the pre-amplifier and the main amplifier, a 1053 nm laser beam with the energy of 1900 J is obtained and converted into a 527 nm laser beam by a KDP crystal with 62% conversion efficiency, 1178 J and beam quality of 7.93 times the diffraction limit (DL). By using a complete closed-loop AO configuration, the static and dynamic wavefront distortions of the laser system are measured and compensated. After correction, the diameter of the circle enclosing 80% energy is improved remarkably from 7.93DL to 1.29DL. The focal spot is highly concentrated and the 1178 J, 527 nm near diffraction limited laser is achieved.
The LiCoO2 films were directly deposited on stainless steel (SS) using medium-frequency magnetron sputtering, and the effects of annealing parameters, such as ambiences, temperatures, holding times, and heating rates, were systematically compared based on surface morphologies, crystal structures, and electrochemical properties. The results demonstrate that an aerobic atmosphere with 3.5 Pa is the most important parameter to maintain the performance of LiCoO2 films. The influence of the annealing temperature (>550 °C) ranks second because the formed (101) or (104) planes of LiCoO2 facilitate Li+ migration. A short holding time of 20 min and a moderate heating rate of 3 °C/min are selected to reduce the oxidation or inter-diffusion between the LiCoO2 films and the SS substrate. Finally, the optimal annealing process is confirmed and corresponds to the initial discharge capacity of 37.56 μA h/(cm2 μm) and the capacity retention of 83.81% at the 50th cycle.
In the past ten years, a great deal of geological study has been reported on the magmatic rocks exposed in the central and western region of the Kuluketage Block, while similar research in the eastern region has rarely been reported. In this paper, we report zircon U–Pb geochronological, zircon Lu–Hf isotopic, whole-rock elemental and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data for the Dapingliang intermediate-acid intrusive rocks in the eastern Kuluketage Block, in order to evaluate its petrogenesis and tectonic significance. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U–Pb dating provided a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 735 ± 3 Ma for the albitophyre (D1), 717 ± 2 Ma for the granite porphyry (D2) and 721 ± 1 Ma for the diorite porphyrite (D3). Geochemical analyses reveal that D1 and D2 belong to Na-rich alkaline A-type granites, and D3 shows the features of high-K calc-alkaline I-type granite. D1 and D2 are characterized by light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and relative depletion of high field strength element (HFSE), with relatively flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns and obviously negative Eu anomalies. D3 is characterized by the enrichment of LREE and depletion of HFSE, with negative slope HREE patterns and slightly negative Eu anomalies. In tectonic discrimination diagrams, D1 and D2 fall in the within-plate granite (WPG) field, indicating a rift setting. Although D3 falls within the volcanic arc granite (VAG) field, it most likely formed in a rift setting, as inferred from its petrology, Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes and regional tectonic evolution. Based on pronounced εNd(t), εHf(t), Pb isotopic data, TDM2 and high (87Sr/86Sr)i and elemental compositions, D1 was derived from the partial melting of basement amphibolites of the old lower crust. D2 originated from a mixture of the old lower crust and depleted mantle-derived magmas and was dominated by partial melting of the basement amphibolites of the lower crust. D3 could have been formed by partial melting of K-rich hornblende in the lower crust. Combining previous studies, we think that the c. 745–710 Ma magmatic rocks were formed in a continental rift setting. A partial melting scheme, triggered by underplating of mantle plume-derived magmas, is proposed to interpret the formation of c. 745–710 Ma A-type and I-type granitoids, mantle-derived mafic dykes, bimodal intrusive rocks, adakitic granites and volcanic rocks. These magmatic activities were probably a reflection of the break-up of the Rodinia supercontinent.
(1) Circa 720 Ma magmatism in the eastern Kuluketage Block.
(2) Na-rich granite was derived from partial melting of basement amphibolites.
(3) The c. 745–710 Ma magmatic rocks were formed in a continental rift setting.
(4) The underplating of mantle plume-derived magmas is proposed.
FM-to-AM (frequency modulation-to-amplitude modulation) conversion caused by nonuniform spectral transmission of broadband beam is harmful to high-power laser facility. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) beam is a special broadband beam for its monochromatic feature at the given time and space on the near field. The traditional method which uses the optical spectral transfer function as filters cannot accurately describe its AM characteristics. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the etalon effect for SSD beam. With a low-order approximation, the analytic model of the temporal shape of SSD beam is obtained for the first time, which gives the detailed AM characteristics at local and integral aspects, such as the variation of ripples width and amplitude in general situation. We also analyze the FM-to-AM conversion on the focal plane; in the focusing process, the lens simply acts as an integrator to smooth the AM of SSD beam. Because AM control is necessary for the near field to avoid optics damage and for the far field to ensure an optimal interaction of laser–target, our investigations could provide some important phenomena and rules for pulse shape control.
The effect of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at various temperatures (310, 330, and 350 °C) on precipitations and strengthening mechanisms of Mg–9Al–1Si alloys was investigated. The results indicated that the average grain size decreased gradually with decreasing of ECAP temperature. The distribution of the Mg2Si phase changed a little when the ECAP temperature increased. However, the different morphologies of β-Mg17Al12 phase were observed, including continuous and uncontinuous precipitation of particles at 310 and 350 °C. The continuous β-Mg17Al12 phase was hardly found and the refined β-Mg17Al12 phase was distributed dispersedly in the matrix at 330 °C. Thus, the mechanical properties of the Mg–9Al–1Si alloy was optimum: ultimate tensile strength and elongation were ∼350.8 MPa and ∼14.77%, respectively. It can be deduced that both grain refinement strengthening and precipitation strengthening play significant roles in strength increment of the alloy during the ECAP process. However, precipitation strengthening is the predominant mechanism.
In indirect drive, reducing peak intensity of a single beam and controlling overlap of multi-beams are two opposite requirements for laser focal spot design. In this paper, an improved laser spot design technique for indirect drive built upon the geometric structures of laser propagation into hohlraum has been introduced. The proposed technique is able to generate appropriate continuous phase plate (CPP) producing a special shaped spot that can balance the opposite requirements. The corresponding CPP does not bring difficulties to the design and fabrication. Phase aberrations are more sensitive to the special shaped spot; however, it can be tolerable for the current beam control level.
SG-III laser facility is now the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion research in China. The whole laser facility can deliver 180 kJ energy and 60 TW power ultraviolet laser onto target, with power balance better than 10%. We review the laser system and introduce the SG-III laser performance here.
The aluminothermic reduction and nitridation method using microsized Al powder and nanosized alumina powder was employed to fabricate AlON powder under N2 atmosphere. Single-phase aluminum oxynitride (AlON) can be prepared at a relatively low temperature (1700 °C) with a holding time of 3 h. The powder is ball milled, doped with different amounts of Y2O3 (0.1–0.9 wt%) as a sintering additive, and then shaped into pellets. The pellet sintering is carried out at two relatively low temperatures (1860 and 1880 °C) for 10 h. The transmittance and hardness of the obtained samples varies as the amount of Y2O3 varies. The sample sintered under optimal conditions can reach an ultimate transmittance of 65% with 2 mm thickness. The Vickers hardness of highly transparent AlON ceramic is about 15.95 ± 0.17 GPa, indicating that our method has a promising future in transparent AlON ceramic production. The sintering promoting mechanisms of Y2O3 are also discussed in detail.
To selectively detect Cu2+ ions is very important for controlling daily intake of Cu2+ ions and monitoring numerous biological processes. Fluorescence spectroscopic technique is a useful one for detection of copper ions. Previous methods always involve the use of metal Cd-based quantum dots (QDs), which suffer to the photobleaching and subsequent release of toxic metal ions. Herein, a simple method has been developed to detect Cu2+ ions by using pristine graphene QDs. Graphene QDs are synthesized by chemical oxidation of pitch graphite fibers. Our results indicate the photoluminescence (PL) of as-synthesized graphene QDs could be quenched by a group of metal ions while adding biothiol cysteine can only cause the significant recovery of the PL of graphene QDs quenched by Cu2+ ions. Our approach provides an easy and environmental friendly method for detection of Cu2+ ions and has the potential for future practical applications.
An energy measurement system in a Large-aperture high power laser experiment platform
is introduced. The entire measurement system includes five calorimeters, which carry
out the energy measurement of the fundamental frequency before the frequency
conversion unit, remaining fundamental frequency, remain second-harmonics, third
harmonics, as well as the energy balance measurement after the frequency conversion
unit. Combinational indirect calibration and direct calibration are employed to
calibrate the sampling coefficients of the calorimeters. The analysis of the data
showed that, regarding the energy balance coefficients, combinational calibration
approach gives a higher precision, and leads to an energy balance with 1%; and
regarding the energy sampling coefficients for the various wavelengths after the
frequency conversion, the results from direct and combinational calibration are
consistent. The uncertainties for all energy sampling coefficients are within 3%,
which guarantees the reliability of the energy measurement for the laser
The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used to study the compressibility of shear thickening fluid (STF) at high deformation rate. In this study, a steel bulk was introduced into the SHPB system to confine and load the STF. A series of STFs with different particle types (SiO2 and PSt-EA) and volume fractions (63 vol.% and 65 vol.%) were tested and the results were compared. The reliability of the results was proved by repeating the tests and the force balance in suspension. The bulk modulus was used to evaluate the compressibility of STF, which indicated that the SiO2-based STF exhibited a larger compressibility than the PSt-EA-based STF. It was found that the bulk modulus increases with increasing of the strain rate and the volume fraction shows little effect on the bulk modulus. The structure-dependent mechanical property was analyzed and the loading effect of bulk modulus was considered to be originated from the interparticle clustering.
A two component system driven by both interface area and interface curvature is studied with a new phase field model. We show that if the curvature impact in the system is strong enough, there exist bubble profiles. A bubble profile describes a pattern of an inner core of one component surround by an outer membrane of the other component. It is a radial solution to a fourth-order nonlinear partial differential equation. We show the existence of such profiles in all dimensions, although the profile is unstable if the dimension is greater than 2.
We study asymptotic properties of the local Whittle estimator of the
long memory parameter for a wide class of fractionally integrated
nonlinear time series models. In particular, we solve the conjecture posed
by Phillips and Shimotsu (2004, Annals of
Statistics 32, 656–692) for Type I processes under our
framework, which requires a global smoothness condition on the spectral
density of the short memory component. The formulation allows the widely
used fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (FARIMA) models
with generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic (GARCH)
innovations of various forms, and our asymptotic results provide a
theoretical justification of the findings in simulations that the local
Whittle estimator is robust to conditional heteroskedasticity.
Additionally, our conditions are easily verifiable and are satisfied for
many nonlinear time series models.We thank
Liudas Giraitis for providing the manuscript by Dalla, Giraitis, and
Hidalgo (2006). We are grateful to the two
referees and the editor for their detailed comments, which led to
substantial improvements. We also thank Michael Stein for helpful comments
on an earlier version. The work is supported in part by NSF grant
We consider quadratic forms of martingale differences and establish a
central limit theorem under mild and easily verifiable conditions. By
approximating Fourier transforms of stationary processes by martingales,
our central limit theorem is applied to the smoothed periodogram estimate
of spectral density functions. Our results go beyond earlier ones by
allowing a variety of nonlinear time series and by avoiding strong mixing
and/or summability conditions on joint cumulants.We thank the two reviewers for their detailed comments, which
led to substantial improvements. The work is supported in part by NSF
We study geometric moment contracting properties of nonlinear time series that are expressed in terms of iterated random functions. Under a Dini-continuity condition, a central limit theorem for additive functionals of such systems is established. The empirical processes of sample paths are shown to converge to Gaussian processes in the Skorokhod space. An exponential inequality is established. We present a bound for joint cumulants, which ensures the applicability of several asymptotic results in spectral analysis of time series. Our results provide a vehicle for statistical inferences for fractals and many nonlinear time series models.
We prove the existence of energy equilibria of the di-block copolymer problem in the unit
disk. They consist of concentrically layered micro-domains rich in one of the two monomer
building units. We construct them by solving the proper singular limit of the free energy
functional. The same limit also explains how under a dynamic law of the free energy, circular
interfaces of non-equilibria may move to the origin and vanish, or collapse to each other,
thereby reducing the number of layers.
Polarization and polarization fatigue of PZT and other ferroelectric thin films have been studied via the frequency spectra of D-E hysteresis. The coercive field (Ec) of PZT thin films has been found strongly dependent on the measuring frequency, while a relatively flat frequency response is observed with SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films. The different fatigue behavior can be attributed to such a difference in the frequency response. Physical models have been suggested to for domain wall movement in PZT and SrBi2Nb2O9 thin films. Based on these observations, a methodology has been proposed to evaluate the high frequency and fatigue properties of ferroelectric thin films.
Ferroelectric thin films of Bi-containing layered perovskites such as Bi4Ti3O12, PbBi2Nb2O9 and SrBi2Nb2O9 have been processed by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. Films with random or c-orientation have been obtained via different heat treatment. Nucleation control has been identified as the mechanism for the texture evolution in these films. A strong polarization anisotropy has been observed which corresponds to the layered polarization in the crystal structure. The fatigue test results show that Ti seems to be a common species that exists in fatigue-prone ferroelectrics.
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