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To investigate spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, examine the correlations among spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy, and explore the mediating role of spiritual well-being between other two variables of Chinese nursing students.
A cross-sectional design was implemented, and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist was used to ensure quality reporting of the study. A cluster sample of 2,718 nursing students was selected from 7 universities and colleges in China. The demographic characteristics questionnaire, the Chinese Version of the Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (C-SCGS), the Spiritual Health Scale Short Form (SHS-SF), and the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Nursing Student (JSPE-NS) were used. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and process plug-in mediation effect analyses were used to analyze the data.
The total score of spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were 173.83 ± 25.62, 98.74 ± 12.87, and 105.04 ± 21.34, respectively. Spiritual care perceptions were positively correlated with spiritual well-being (r = 0.617, p < 0.01) and empathy (r = 0.528, p < 0.01). And spiritual well-being played a partial mediating role between the other two variables (accounting for 28.1%).
Significance of results
Spiritual care perceptions, spiritual well-being, and empathy were quite moderate, which need in improving. It is suggested that nursing educators pay attention to the spiritual care education of nursing students, perfect the spiritual care education system, and take targeted measures according to nursing students’ individual personality traits and differences, improve their spiritual well-being and empathy in multiple ways, so as to improve their spiritual care perceptions and competence.
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe and life-threatening complication, characterised by multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. However, there is limited information on the impact of various comorbidities on HBV-ACLF in a large population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between comorbidities, complications and mortality. In this retrospective observational study, we identified 2166 cases of HBV-ACLF hospitalised from January 2010 to March 2018. Demographic data from the patients, medical history, treatment, laboratory indices, comorbidities and complications were collected. The mortality rate in our study group was 47.37%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity, followed by alcoholic liver disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were common in these patients. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for death within 90 days, together with gastrointestinal bleeding and HE at admission, HE and hepatorenal syndrome during hospitalisation. Knowledge of risk factors can help identify HBV-ACLF patients with a poor prognosis for HBV-ACLF with comorbidities and complications.
Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is a major challenge in prehospital bleeding control and is associated with high mortality. This study was performed to estimate medical knowledge and the perceived barriers to information acquisition among health-care workers (HCWs) regarding NCTH in China.
A self-administered and validated questionnaire was distributed among 11 WeChat groups consisting of HCWs engaged in trauma, emergency, and disaster rescue.
A total of 575 HCWs participated in this study. In the knowledge section, the majority (87.1%) denied that successful hemostasis could be obtained by external compression. Regarding attitudes, the vast majority of HCWs exhibited positive attitudes toward the important role of NCTH in reducing prehospital preventable death (90.4%) and enthusiasm for continuous learning (99.7%). For practice, fewer than half of HCWs (45.7%) had heard of NCTH beforehand, only a minority (14.3%) confirmed they had attended relevant continuing education, and 16.3% HCWs had no access to updated medical information. The most predominant barrier to information acquisition was the lack of continuing training (79.8%).
Knowledge and practice deficiencies do exist among HCWs. Obstacles to update medical information warrant further attention. Furthermore, education program redesign is also needed.
Subglacial lake exploration is of great interest to the science community. RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS) provides an exploration tool to measure and sample subglacial lake environments while the subglacial lake remains isolated from the glacier surface and atmosphere. This paper presents an electronic control system design of 200 m prototype of RECAS. The proposed electronic control system consists of a surface system, a downhole control system, and a power transfer and communication system. The downhole control system is the core element of RECAS, and is responsible for sonde status monitoring, sonde motion control, subglacial water sampling and in situ analysis. A custom RS485 temperature sensor was developed to cater for the limited size and depth requirements of the system. We adopted a humidity-based measurement to monitor for a housing leak. This condition is because standard leak detection monitoring of water conductivity may be inapplicable to pure ice in Antarctica. A water sampler control board was designed to control the samplers and monitor the on/off state. A high-definition camera system with built-in storage and self-heating ability was designed to perform the video recording in the subglacial lake. The proposed electronic control system is proven effective after a series of tests.
Much progress has been made in understanding the environmental and hormonal systems regulating winter diapause. However, transcriptional regulation of summer diapause is still largely unknown, making it difficult to understand an all-around regulation profile of seasonal adaptation. To bridge this gap, comparison RNA-seq to profile the transcriptome and to examine differential gene expression profiles between non-diapause, summer diapause, and winter diapause groups were performed. A total number of 113 million reads were generated and assembled into 79,117 unigenes, with 37,492 unigenes categorized into 58 functional gene ontology groups, 25 clusters of orthologous group categories, and 256 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. KEGG analysis mapped 2108 differentially expressed genes to 48 and 67 pathways for summer and winter diapauses, respectively. Enrichment statistics showed that 11 identical pathways similarly overlapped in the top 20 enriched functional groups both related to summer and winter diapauses. We also identified 35 key candidate genes for universal and differential functions related to summer and winter diapause preparation. Furthermore, we identified some genes involved in the signaling and metabolic pathways that may be the key drivers to integrate environmental signals into the summer and winter diapause preparation. The current study provided valuable insights into global molecular mechanisms underpinning diapause preparation.
This study aimed to explore the impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status in general population in different affected areas in China.
This was a comparative study including two groups of participants: (1) general population in an online survey in Ya'an and Jingzhou cities during the COVID-19 outbreak from 10–20 February 2020; and (2) matching general population selected from the mental health survey in Ya'an in 2019 (from January to May 2019). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.
There were 1775 participants (Ya'an in 2019 and 2020: 537 respectively; Jingzhou in 2020: 701). Participants in Ya'an had a significantly higher rate of general health problems (GHQ scores ⩾3) in 2020 (14.7%) than in 2019 (5.2%) (p < 0.001). Compared with Ya'an (8.0%), participants in Jingzhou in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of anxiety (SAS scores ⩾50, 24.1%) (p < 0.001). Participants in Ya'an in 2020 had a significantly higher rate of depression (SDS scores ⩾53, 55.3%) than in Jingzhou (16.3%) (p < 0.001). The risk factors of anxiety symptoms included female, number of family members (⩾6 persons), and frequent outdoor activities. The risk factors of depression symptoms included participants in Ya'an and uptake self-protective measures.
The prevalence of psychological symptoms has increased sharply in general population during the COVID-19 outbreak. People in COVID-19 severely affected areas may have higher scores of GHQ and anxiety symptoms. Culture-specific and individual-based psychosocial interventions should be developed for those in need during the COVID-19 outbreak.
The associations between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain controversial. A quantitative assessment of dose–response associations has not been reported. This study aims to assess the associations between the risk of MetS and SSB, ASB, and total sweetened beverage (TSB, the combination of SSB and ASB) consumption by reviewing population-based epidemiological studies.
We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases prior to 4 November 2019, for relevant studies investigating the SSB–MetS and ASB–MetS associations. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. Dose–response association was assessed using a restricted cubic splines model.
We identified seventeen articles (twenty-four studies, including 93 095 participants and 20 749 MetS patients).
The pooled RR for the risk of MetS were 1·51 (95 % CI 1·34, 1·69), 1·56 (1·32, 1·83) and 1·44 (1·19, 1·75) in high consumption group of TSB, SSB and ASB, respectively; and 1·20 (1·13, 1·28), 1·19 (1·11, 1·28) and 1·31 (1·05, 1·65) per 250 ml/d increase in TSB, SSB and ASB consumption, respectively. Additionally, we found evidence of non-linear, TSB–MetS and SSB–MetS dose–response associations and a linear ASB–MetS dose–response association.
TSB, SSB and ASB consumption was associated with the risk of MetS. The present findings provide evidence that supports reducing intake of these beverages to lower the TSB-, SSB- and ASB-related risk of MetS.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.
The carburizing behaviors and mechanisms for Cr35Ni45Nb alloy subjected to different service conditions were studied in a high-temperature vacuum environment. Generally, the carburizing process of an alloy is always accompanied by diffusional heterogeneous reactions regardless of the service condition of the alloy. For a carburized original tube, there is a layered structure at the inner wall of the tube, which is comprised of a M7C3 zone, a M7C3–M23C6 mixed zone, and a M23C6 zone with different morphologies. However, for a 6-year tube (short for a tube serviced for 6 years), the composite oxide layers formed previously act as effective barriers to carbon infiltration. Moreover, the Cr2O3 scale tended to be carbonized to form carbide scale to spall from the surface in a reducing environment, while the SiO2 kept stable all along. Once the oxide layers were removed or carbonized enough, inconceivable internal carburization occurred widely.
In this work, we review current trends in China to investigate beam plasma interaction phenomena. Recent progresses in China on low energy heavy ions and plasma interaction, ion beam-plasma interactions under the influences of magnetic fields, high energy heavy ion radiography through marginal range method, energy deposition of highly charged ions on surfaces and Raman spectroscopy of surfaces after irradiation of highly charged ions are presented.
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at −80°C or −196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at −80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at −196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at −80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at −80°C compared with at −196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at −80°C. In the freezing–thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing–thawing of SSCs.
Dome A is the highest ice feature in Antarctica, at over 4000 m a.s.l., and overlies the Gamburtsev mountains. It is believed that deep ice-core drilling in this area may reveal the oldest ice in Antarctica, providing an unparalleled paleoclimate record in excess of 1 Ma, and perhaps going back as far as 1.2 Ma (Xiao and others, 2008). However, little is known about this area because its height and distance from the coast and scientific stations makes access difficult.
The strategies of repair of tetralogy of Fallot change with the age of patients. In children older than 4 years and adults, the optimal strategy may be to use different method of reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract from those followed in younger children, so as to avoid, or reduce, the pulmonary insufficiency that is increasingly known to compromise right ventricular function.
From April, 2001, through May, 2008, we undertook complete repair in 312 patients, 180 male and 132 female, with a mean age of 11.3 years ±0.4 years, and a range from 4 to 48 years, with typical clinical and morphological features of tetralogy of Fallot, including 42 patients with the ventriculo-arterial connection of double outlet right ventricle. The operation was performed under moderate hypothermia using blood cardioplegia. The ventricular septal defect was closed with a Dacron patch. When it was considered necessary to resect the musculature within the right ventricular outflow tract, or perform pulmonary valvotomy, we sought to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve by protecting as far as possible the native leaflets, or creating a folded monocusp of autologous pericardium.
The repair was achieved completely through right atrium in 192, through the right ventricular outflow tract in 83, and through the right atrium, the outflow tract, and the pulmonary trunk in 36 patients. A transjunctional patch was inserted in 169 patients, non-valved in all but 9. There were no differences regarding the periods of aortic cross-clamping or cardiopulmonary bypass. Of the patients, 5 died (1.6%), with no influence noted for the transjunctional patch. Of those having a non-valved patch inserted, three-tenths had pulmonary regurgitation of various degree, while those having a valved patch had minimal pulmonary insufficiency and good right ventricular function postoperatively, this being maintained after follow-up of 8 to 24-months.
Based on our experience, we suggest that the current strategy of repair of tetralogy of Fallot in older children and adults should be based on minimizing the insertion of transjunctional patches, this being indicated only in those with very small ventriculo-pulmonary junctions. If such a patch is necessary, then steps should be taken to preserve the function of the pulmonary valve.
We aimed to study the response of serum transferrin receptors (sTfR) to Fe supplementation in women of childbearing age with Fe-deficiency erythropoiesis (IDE) and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Primary screening was performed in 942 women ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. After Fe-related biochemical indices such as serum ferritin, Zn protoporphyrin and Hb were determined, the subjects were divided into four groups: normal, Fe store depletion, IDE and IDA. A total of 131 women were randomly selected from the normal, IDE and IDA groups. Subsequently, seventy-six women with IDE and IDA were given various doses of Fe (14 mg/d for IDE; 28 mg/d for IDA) with ferrous l-threonate capsules for twelve consecutive weeks. After receiving Fe supplements, the levels of Fe and sTfR were determined at weeks 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12.The levels of sTfR in women of childbearing age with IDE and IDA were significantly higher than those in the normal group. After receiving Fe supplements, the levels of sTfR were significantly decreased in women of childbearing age with IDE and IDA, while the levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased. In conclusion, STfR can be used as a reliable indicator for assessing the efficacy of Fe supplements.
Semi-dwarfism is an important agronomic trait in rice breeding programmes. sd-1, termed the ‘Green Revolution gene’, confers semi-dwarf stature, increases harvest index, improves lodging resistance, and is associated with increased responsiveness to nitrogen fertilizer. It has contributed substantially to the significant increase in rice production. In this paper, a novel semi-dwarf mutant in rice is reported. Genetic analysis revealed that only a single dominant gene locus non-allelic to sd-1, temporarily designated Sdt97, is involved in the control of semi-dwarfism of the mutant. The semi-dwarfism of the mutant could be partly restored to the tall wild-type by application of exogenous GA3, suggesting that the mutant gene Sdt97 may be involved in the gibberellin (GA) synthesis pathway and not the GA response pathway in rice. A residual heterozygous line (RHL) population derived from a recombinant inbred line (RIL) was developed. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and bulked segregation analysis (BSA) combined with recessive class analysis (RCA) techniques were used to map Sdt97 to the long arm of chromosome 6 at the interval between two STS markers, N6 and TX5, with a genetic distance of 0·2 cM and 0·8 cM, respectively. A contig map was constructed based on the reference sequence aligned by the Sdt97 linked markers. The physical map of the Sdt97 locus was defined to a 118 kb interval, and 19 candidate genes were detected in the target region. This is the first time that a dominant semi-dwarf gene has been reported in rice. Cloning and functional analysis of gene Sdt97 will help us to learn more about molecular mechanism of rice semi-dwarfism.
In the two-dimensional simulation of the interaction of an ultrashort intense laser with droplet plasma, two hot electron jets generated by resonance absorption and emitted symmetrically with respect to the laser propagation direction are observed at a low laser field amplitude such as $a_0=0.1$. However, the emission angle of electron jets cannot be explained simply with the theory of resonance absorption for planar targets. When the laser amplitude is increased to $a_0=2$, electron bunches generated by the ponderomotive force separated by a laser period are superimposed into the hot electron jets. Accelerated ions have two groups at low laser intensities, one is anisotropic and associated with hot electron jets and the other is isotropic due to hydrodynamics expansion. At high light intensities, isotropic ion acceleration is found through Coulomb explosion.
Pancreases obtained from 1–9-day-old rabbits were digested with 1 mg/ml ?? collagenase and cultivated with low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). The cells were subcultured almost until confluence. They were identified as pancreatic stem/progenitor cells using two methods: an immunohistochemical staining technique and the response of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion after β-cell induction. Results showed that the cells of rabbits acquired strong proliferation ability, and expressed the markers of pancreatic stem/progenitor cells: PDX-1, CK19 and nestin. After β-cell induction for 2 days, 20% of cells were dithizone (DTZ) positive, rapidly increasing to 80% after 6 days. Insulin secretion was stimulated by a high glucose concentration (26 mmol/l). These powerful tests demonstrated that isolated and cultivated cells in rabbits were pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. This result has not yet been reported elsewhere.