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Environmental hypoxia exposure causes fertility problems in human and animals. Compelling evidence suggests that chronic hypoxia impairs spermatogenesis and reduces sperm motility. However, it is unclear whether paternal hypoxic exposure affects fertilization and early embryo development. In the present study, we exposed male mice to high altitude (3200 m above sea level) for 7 or 60 days to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on sperm quality, zygotic DNA methylation and blastocyst formation. Compared with age-matched controls, hypoxia-treated males exhibited reduced fertility after mating with normoxic females as a result of defects in sperm motility and function. Results of in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments revealed that 60 days’ exposure significantly reduced cleavage and blastocyst rates by 30% and 70%, respectively. Immunohistochemical staining of pronuclear formation indicated that the pronuclear formation process was disturbed and expression of imprinted genes was reduced in early embryos after paternal hypoxia. Overall, the findings of this study suggested that exposing male mice to hypoxia impaired sperm function and affected key events during early embryo development in mammals.
To solve the problems of low gain, narrow bandwidth, and poor radiation directivity of conventional ground penetrating radar antenna, this paper proposes an ultra-wideband and high-gain antipodal tapered slot antenna (ATSA) with planar metamaterial lens. As a constituent part of this lens, a new non-resonant metamaterial unit cell is introduced and analyzed by the full-wave simulation tool. The single-layer planar lens composed of the designed unit cells with different sizes is placed in the maximum radiation direction of the ATSA to greatly enhance its radiation capability. The proposed planar lens antenna has a wide impedance bandwidth of 107.4% (2.41–8 GHz) and −3 dB gain bandwidth of 54.5% (4–7 GHz), respectively. The gain increases averagely by 6.0 dB in the whole operating frequency band, and the peck gain reaches 15.4 dBi at 5.5 GHz. And its excellent performance shows a high application prospect in ground penetrating radar and microwave imaging system.
Intestinal stem cells, which are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to mature cell types, are responsible for maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Recent evidence indicates that these processes are mediated, in part, through nutritional status in response to diet. Diverse dietary patterns including caloric restriction, fasting, high-fat diets, ketogenic diets and high-carbohydrate diets as well as other nutrients control intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation through nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR and AMPK. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of how intestinal stem cells contribute to intestinal epithelial homeostasis and diseases. We also discuss the effects of diet and nutrient-sensing pathways on intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, as well as their potential application in the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases.
To examine the association between sleep duration in different stages of life and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
Design, setting, and participants:
A total of 2472 healthy elderly and 505 patients with aMCI in China were included in this study. The study analyzed the association between aMCI and sleep duration in different stages of life.
We compared sleep duration in different stages of life and analyzed the association between Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores and sleep duration by curve estimation. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between aMCI and sleep duration.
In the analysis, there were no results proving that sleep duration in youth (P = 0.719, sleep duration < 10 hours; P = 0.999, sleep duration ≥ 10 hours) or midlife (P = 0.898, sleep duration < 9 hours; P = 0.504, sleep duration ≥ 9 hours) had a significant association with aMCI. In the group sleeping less than 7 hours in late life, each hour more of sleep duration was associated with approximately 0.80 of the original risk of aMCI (P = 0.011, odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.68–0.95).
Among the elderly sleeping less than 7 hours, there is a decreased risk of aMCI for every additional hour of sleep.
Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease.
Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. A total of 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge.
There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 y. A total of 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei Province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95 ± 14.69 d. The most common postdischarge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge.
The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) induced by the absence of seed dormancy causes a severe reduction in crop yield and flour quality. In this study, we isolated and characterized TaABI4, an ABA-responsive transcription factor that participates in regulating seed germination in wheat. Sequence analysis revealed that TaABI4 has three homologues, located on chromosomes 1A/1B/1D. TaABI4 contains a conserved AP2 domain, and AP2-associated, LRP and potential PEST motifs. Putative cis-acting regulatory elements (CE1-like box, W-box, ABRE elements and RY elements) were identified in the TaABI4 promoter region that showed high conservation in 17 wheat cultivars and wheat-related species. Expression profiling of TaABI4 indicated that it is a seed-specific gene accumulating during the middle stages of seed development. Transcript accumulation of TaABI4 in wheat cultivar Chuanmai 32 (CM32, PHS susceptible) was 5.07-fold and 1.39-fold higher than that in synthetic hexaploidy wheat SHW-L1 (PHS resistant) at 15 and 20 DPA, respectively. Six expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) of TaABI4 on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 3B and 4A were characterized based on the accumulated transcripts of TaABI4 in SHW-L1 and CM32-derived recombinant inbred lines. These QTLs explained 10.7 to 46.1% of the trait variation with 4.53–10.59 of LOD scores, which contain genes that may affect the expression of TaABI4.
Seaweeds have numerous biologically active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols and carotenoids, that are beneficial to human health. Although these benefits might be related to the synthesis, secretion or reabsorption of uric acid, no studies have explored the relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia (HUA) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether seaweeds consumption is related to HUA in a large-scale adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 32 365 adults (17 328 men and 15 037 women) in Tianjin, People’s Republic of China. Frequency of seaweeds consumption was assessed by a validated self-administered FFQ. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol/L in men and >350 μmol/L in women. The association between seaweeds consumption and HUA was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Restricted cubic spline functions were used for non-linearity tests. The prevalence of HUA in men and women was 21·17 % and 5·93 %, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the OR (95 % CI) for HUA across seaweed consumption (g/1000 kcal per d) were 1·00 (reference) for level 1, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·02) for level 2; 0·90 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·01) for level 3; 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) for level 4 in men and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·10) for level 2; 0·82 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·00) for level 3; 0·84 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·03) for level 4 in women, respectively. A negative correlation between seaweeds consumption and HUA in males but not in females was observed. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus patients are non-specific and early diagnosis and intervention are challenging. It remains essential to explore risk factors for pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients to identify high risk patients and allow intensive monitoring.
From January 2010 to December 2018, 84 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary arterial hypertension and 160 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus but without pulmonary arterial hypertension were enrolled. Clinical manifestations and laboratory test results were compared between the two groups to identify predictors of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Candidate pulmonary arterial hypertension risk factors were further compared among systemic lupus erythematosus-pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with different characteristics.
Among collected patient characteristics, Raynaud’s phenomenon (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.17–4.61), digital vasculitis (OR 4.12, 95% CI: 1.48–11.49), pericardial effusion, pulmonary interstitial lesions, positive anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein antibodies, and positive anticardiolipin antibodies immunoglobulin G were associated with significantly higher risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Among these candidate risk factors, positive anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein antibody was independently associated with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension and more active disease. Digital vasculitis was independently associated with systemic lupus erythematosus alleviation, while pericardial effusion was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus deterioration. Pericardial effusion was associated with longer pulmonary arterial hypertension duration.
The significant association between studied clinical and laboratory indicators and risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension and systemic lupus erythematosus characteristics suggested that these factors can be used to identify patients at higher risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension and adverse outcomes. Close monitoring may be indicated in patients with these risk factors, especially with more than one risk factor.
Stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δD) in Antarctic snow and ice are basic proxy indices of climate in ice core studies. The relation between the ratios has important indicative significance for moisture sources. In general, the fractionation characteristics of the two isotopes vary with different meteorological and topographical conditions. This paper presents the spatial and temporal distribution of meteoric water line (MWL) slopes along a traverse from the Zhongshan Station (ZSS) to Dome A in East Antarctica. It is found that the slopes decrease with the increasing distance inland from the coast and the lowest slope occurred at Dome A, where the long-range transported moisture dominates and clear sky snowing have an influence. The slopes in different layers of the snowpack showed a decreasing trend with depth and this is attributed to the fractionation during the interstitial sublimation and re-condensation processes of the water vapor. Frost flower development on the interior plateau surface can greatly alter the depth evolution of the MWL slope. The coastal snow pits also go through the post-depositional smoothing effect, but their influences are not so significant as the inland regions.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcome of aortic valve replacement for bicuspid aortic valve and tricuspid aortic valve and the related risk factors.
From January 2014 to June 2019, 177 tricuspid aortic valve patients and 101 bicuspid aortic valve patients who underwent aortic valve replacement in our hospital were collected. 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was used to control the bias in patient selection. The perioperative and follow-up data between the two groups were compared. Independent risk factors which were associated with the continued dilatation of the ascending aorta were identified by univariate or multivariate logistic regression analysis.
After the matching procedure, 160 patients were included in the analysis (80 in each group). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and perioperative outcomes were similar between the two groups (all p > 0.05). Moreover, 67 patients in the tricuspid aortic valve group and 70 in the bicuspid aortic valve group completed the follow-up. The ascending aorta change, annual change rate, and the proportion of continuous dilation of ascending aorta in bicuspid aortic valve group were significantly higher than those in the tricuspid aortic valve group (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that type 1 in bicuspid aortic valve (OR 5.173; 95% CI 1.772, 15.101; p = 0.003), aortic regurgitation (OR 3.673; 95% CI 1.133, 11.908; p = 0.030), and aortic valve stenosis with regurgitation (OR 6.489; 95% CI 1.726, 24.404; p = 0.006) were independent risk factors for the continued dilatation of the ascending aorta in all AV patients. Furthermore, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that type 1 in bicuspid aortic valve (OR 5.157; 95% CI 1.053, 25.272; p = 0.043), age ≥ 40 years (OR 6.956; 95% CI 1.228, 39.410; p = 0.028), and aortic regurgitation (OR 4.322; 95% CI 1.174, 15.911; p = 0.028) were independent risk factors for the continued dilatation of the ascending aorta in bicuspid aortic valve patients.
Compared with tricuspid aortic valve patients, the ascending aorta of bicuspid aortic valve patients is more likely to continue to enlarge after aortic valve replacement. Type 1 in bicuspid aortic valve, age ≥ 40 years, and aortic regurgitation were the independent risk factors.
Steam jet milling was applied for the first time to ultra-fine grind the filter cake (moisture content 23.80%) produced by a kaolin concentrator. The material was dehydrated and dried simultaneously during grinding, and the final ground sample met the moisture content requirement for powder products of <2%. The particle size of the ground kaolin samples decreased and the particle-size distribution was more concentrated, indicating that the steam jet milling was more effective for kaolin processing than the conventional dry grinding process. In addition, steam jet milling can improve the whiteness and decrease the crystal order of the samples, thus improving the kaolin properties in follow-up applications.
More than 50% patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have severe functional impairment. The restoration of patient functioning is a critical therapeutic goal among patients with MDD. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatments on self-rated functional outcomes using the Sheehan Disability Scale in adults with MDD in randomized clinical trials.
PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to December 10, 2019. Summary statistics are reported as weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Interventions were ranked using the surface under the cumulative ranking probabilities.
We included 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 18 998) evaluating the efficacy of 13 different pharmacological treatments on functional outcomes, as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Duloxetine was the most effective pharmacological agent on functional outcomes, followed by (ranked by efficacy): paroxetine, levomilnacipran, venlafaxine, quetiapine, desvenlafaxine, agomelatine, escitalopram, amitriptyline, bupropion, sertraline, vortioxetine, and fluoxetine. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were more effective than other drug classes. Additionally, the comparison-adjusted funnel plot suggested the publication bias between small and large studies was relatively low.
Our results indicate that there may be differences across antidepressant agents and classes with respect to self-reported functional outcomes. Validation and replication of these findings in large-scale RCTs are warranted. Our research results will be clinically useful for guiding psychiatrists in treating patients with MDD and functional impairment. PROSPERO registration number CRD42018116663.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control.
Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360–530 ms) and conflict SP (600–1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context.
The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.
We present a 2 μm Tm:YAG disk laser multi-pass pumped by a 1 μm laser. The transitions in competition of up conversion (UC) and excited state absorption (ESA) are analyzed in detail based on a numerical model that considers stimulated emission, fluorescence, non-radiative decay, UC, andESA, showing good agreement with experiments. The proportions and fractional thermal loads of all transitions are derived quantitatively. The results show that UC and ESA are critical in Tm:YAG disk lasers, resulting in a decrease in the absorbed pump power and temperature after lasing for two different disk thicknesses. In addition, although the absorbed pump power of the 0.5 mm disk is lower than in the 1 mm case, its relatively weak UC and ESA and low total fractional thermal load can improve laser performance. A 0.5 mm Tm:YAG disk laser thus delivered the maximum output power of1.05 W with beam quality of Mx2 = 2.02 and My2 = 2.03.
The development of free-stream disturbances in flow over a vertically vibrating flat plate with a slender leading edge is investigated. The evolution of the optimal inflow perturbation that results in the maximum amplification is computed to investigate the effect of the plate vibration on the development of free-stream disturbance, secondary instability of streaks and subsequently the bypass transition to turbulence. It is observed that the plate vibration leads to periodic change of the angle of attack, shifting the free-stream disturbance to the upper or lower side of the plate. Therefore, the development of steady inflow perturbations, which receive the largest amplification, is interrupted by the vibration, and the perturbation amplification via the lift-up mechanism is weakened. The vibration brings a second peak of perturbation growth at the vibration frequency, leading to high-frequency free-stream perturbations penetrating into the base boundary layer, which is not observed in flow over a stationary plate owing to the sheltering mechanism. This resonance of the flow perturbation and the vibrating plate is explained by the staggering effect of the leading edge. Further, the direct numerical simulations with the optimal inflow perturbation imposed on the inflow boundary show that the vertical vibration of the plate leads to streamwise periodic vorticity near the edge of the boundary layer. This inhomogeneity of the streamwise vorticity brings about streamwisely localized distortion of the low-speed streaks and, thus, an intermittent secondary instability. Therefore, before the streaks break down to turbulence, they undergo several rounds of secondary instabilities, resulting in an elongated bypass transition process.
The association between dietary Fe intake and diabetes risk remains inconsistent. We aimed to explore the association between dietary Fe intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in middle-aged and older adults in urban China. This study used data from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study, an on-going community-based prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from 2008 to 2013 in Guangzhou community. A total of 2696 participants aged 40–75 years without T2DM at baseline were included in data analyses, with a median of 5·6 (interquartile range 4·1–5·9) years of follow-up. T2DM was identified by self-reported diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥ 7·0 mmol/l or glycosylated Hb ≥ 6·5 %. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. We ascertained 205 incident T2DM cases during 13 476 person-years. The adjusted HR for T2DM risk in the fourth quartile of haem Fe intake was 1·92 (95 % CI 1·07, 3·46; Ptrend = 0·010), compared with the first quartile intake. These significant associations were found in haem Fe intake from total meat (HR 2·74; 95 % CI 1·22, 6·15; Ptrend = 0·011) and haem Fe intake from red meat (HR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·44; Ptrend = 0·034), but not haem Fe intake from processed meat, poultry or fish/shellfish. The association between dietary intake of total Fe or non-haem Fe with T2DM risk had no significance. Our findings suggested that higher dietary intake of haem Fe (especially from red meat), but not total Fe or non-haem Fe, was associated with greater T2DM risk in middle-aged and older adults.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
Although the progression of invasive aspergillosis (IA) shares some risk factors in the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), however, the prevalence of IA in suspected PTB remains unclear. During a period of 1 year (from January 2016 to December 2016), consecutive patients with suspected PTB were included in a referral TB hospital. Data, including demographic information and underlying diseases, were collected from medical records. PTB were all confirmed by mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein–Jensen medium). IA were diagnosed as proven or probable according to the criteria of the 2008 EORTC/MSG definitions. A descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the corresponding prevalence. During the study year, 1507 patients have a positive mycobacterial culture, with a mean age of 45.6 (s.d. 19.9) years old and a female:male ratio of 1:4. Among the 82 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases, two patients (2.44%, 95% CI 0.67–8.46%) were diagnosed as IA (one proven and one probable); two probable IA patients (0.15%, 95% CI 0.04–0.55%) were diagnosed in PTB patients (n = 1315), and all were retreatment cases. In addition, all four IA patients (100%) exhibited cavities in both lobes on radiograph. In China, the prevalence of IA is low in active PTB patients. However, when high-risk factors for IA are encountered in PTB patients, further investigations are required and empirically treatment for IA might be warranted.