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The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
Novel mixed micelle was successfully fabricated by the synergistic self-assembly of poly(methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(methacrylate isobutyl (MAPOSS)-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-AA)) and poly(methacrylate isobutyl POSS-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-2-vinylpyridine) (P(MAPOSS-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-2VP)). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy characterizations demonstrate that the formation of mixed micelles is driven by electrostatic interaction. The formation of the mixed micelles was further implied by a simple fluorescence resonance energy transfer based technique. The mixed micelle possesses the biggest size at pH = 7.0, which is attributed to the strongest electrostatic interaction between the two kinds of micelles. The zeta potential under different pH was detected to further investigate the surface charges corroborating the discussions. DLS and UV-vis indicate that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is pH dependent. The mixed micelles reach the highest LCST at pH 7.0. The LCST of the mixed micelle can be tuned by adjusting the volume ratio of the two kinds of micelles as well. Moreover, the thermo-responsive behavior of the mixed micelle is absolutely reversible.
In the present study, we compared cytotoxicity and cell uptake of silica nanoparticles with four different surface coatings generated through layer-by-layer self-assembly. Rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were labeled with silica nanoparticles of different coatings including poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly(anetholesulfonic acid, sodium salt) (PAS), and dextran sulfate. The MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] test was performed to quantify the cell biocompatibility. The cellular uptake of those silica nanoparticles was determined by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that all examined silica nanoparticles were stable in aqueous phase with high monodispersity. Labeled rMSCs are unaffected in their viability, apoptosis, and differentiation capacities. The silica nanoparticle-coated synthetic polycations such as PEI or PAH have higher cell internalization than negatively charged polyelectrolytes. The ability to control cell uptake of different particles may have applications in cell labeling, cell separation, and other biomedical applications.
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