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Pregnancy is a complex biological process. The establishment and maintenance of foetal–maternal interface are pivotal events. Decidual immune cells and inflammatory cytokines play indispensable roles in the foetal–maternal interface. The disfunction of decidual immune cells leads to adverse pregnancy outcome. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a common inflammatory cytokine, has critical roles in different stages of normal pregnancy process. However, the relationship between the disorder of TNF-α and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), spontaneous abortion (SA), preterm birth and so on, is still indefinite. In this review, we thoroughly reviewed the effect of TNF-α disorder on pathological conditions. Moreover, we summarized the reports about the adverse pregnancy outcomes (PE, IUGR, SA and preterm birth) of using anti-TNF-α drugs (infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) currently in the clinical studies. Overall, IUGR, SA and preterm birth are the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes of anti-TNF-α drugs. Our review may provide insight for the immunological treatment of pregnancy-related complication, and help practitioners make informed decisions based on the current evidences.
This paper investigates the stability of a fully parabolic–parabolic-fluid (PP-fluid) system of the Keller–Segel–Navier–Stokes type in a bounded planar domain under the natural volume-filling hypothesis. In the limit of fast signal diffusion, we first show that the global classical solutions of the PP-fluid system will converge to the solution of the corresponding parabolic–elliptic-fluid (PE-fluid) system. As a by-product, we obtain the global well-posedness of the PE-fluid system for general large initial data. We also establish some new exponential time decay estimates for suitable small initial cell mass, which in particular ensure an improvement of convergence rate on time. To further explore the stability property, we carry out three numerical examples of different types: the nontrivial and trivial equilibriums, and the rotating aggregation. The simulation results illustrate the possibility to achieve the optimal convergence and show the vanishment of the deviation between the PP-fluid system and PE-fluid system for the equilibriums and the drastic fluctuation of error for the rotating solution.
High-Mg andesites (HMAs) are crucial for the reconstruction of plate tectonics, continental margin formation and lithospheric evolution. In this study, we present new fossil age, whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd isotope data on the newly discovered Dundunshan Group HMAs in the Dundunshan area of the Beishan orogen (central-southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt). The Dundunshan HMA samples are characterized by high MgO (6.47–7.02 wt%) contents and high Mg# values (67.27–68.77), with SiO2 (58.57–62.13 wt%), Al2O3 (14.49–16.07 wt%) and CaO (5.05–6.24 wt%) resembling typical HMAs. The Dundunshan HMA samples are calc-alkaline and strongly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), with slightly negative Eu anomaly and high-field-strength element (HFSE) depletions. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7041–0.7057) and ϵNd(t) (3.73–5.59) indicate that the Dundunshan HMAs were mainly formed by the interactions between subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. Fossil evidence and published radiometric age data constrain the formation of the Dundunshan HMAs to early Late Devonian time. Sedimentological features of the Middle Devonian Sangejing Formation and regional tectonic correlation suggest that the Hongliuhe–Niujuanzi–Xichangjing Ocean in the Dundunshan area was likely closed during late Middle Devonian time, and that the Dundunshan HMAs were formed in a post-collision extensional setting.
This study aimed to investigate the environmental contamination of nucleic acid at 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCOV) vaccination site and to evaluate the effect of improvement to the vaccination process. Nucleic acid samples were collected from the surface of the objects in 2019-nCOV vaccination point A (used between 15 November 2020 and 25 December 2020) and point B (used after 27 December 2020) in a comprehensive tertiary hospital. Samples were collected from point A before improvement to the vaccination process, and from point B (B1 and B2) after improvement to the vaccination process. The real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method was used for detection. The positive rate of vaccination room was 47.06% (24/51) at point A. No positive result was found in point B1 both at working hours (0/27) and after terminal disinfection (0/27). In point B2, the positive results were found in vaccine's outer packaging and staff gloves at working hours, with a positive rate of 7.41% (2/27). The positive rate was 0 (0/27) after terminal disinfection in point B2. The nucleic acid contamination in the vaccination room of 2019-nCOV vaccine nucleic acid sampling point is serious, which can be avoided through the improvement and intervention (such as personal protection, vaccination operation and disinfection methods).
In this paper, we investigate the fast signal diffusion limit of solutions of the fully parabolic Keller–Segel–Stokes system to solution of the parabolic–elliptic-fluid counterpart in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional bounded domain with smooth boundary. Under the natural volume-filling assumption, we establish an algebraic convergence rate of the fast signal diffusion limit for general large initial data by developing a series of subtle bootstrap arguments for combinational functionals and using some maximal regularities. In our current setting, in particular, we can remove the restriction to asserting convergence only along some subsequence in Wang–Winkler and the second author (Cal. Var., 2019).
The risk of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We evaluated the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlated this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities.
In this observational study, surface environmental samples collected from ICU patient rooms and common areas were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Select samples from the common area were tested by cell culture. Clinical data were collected and correlated to the presence of environmental contamination. Results were compared to historical data from a previous study in general wards.
In total, 200 samples from 20 patient rooms and 75 samples from common areas and the staff pantry were tested. The results showed that 14 rooms had at least 1 site contaminated, with an overall contamination rate of 14% (28 of 200 samples). Environmental contamination was not associated with day of illness, ventilatory mode, aerosol-generating procedures, or viral load. The frequency of environmental contamination was lower in the ICU than in general ward rooms. Eight samples from the common area were positive, though all were negative on cell culture.
Environmental contamination in the ICU was lower than in the general wards. The use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective. Transmission risk via environmental surfaces in the ICUs is likely to be low. Nonetheless, infection control practices should be strictly reinforced, and transmission risk via droplet or airborne spread remains.
In a high-level radioactive waste repository, bentonite may react with the alkaline solution produced by cement degradation. In this study, bentonite was mixed with alkaline solution in a closed system and reacted for 3–24 months. Furthermore, swelling tests were conducted on the alkaline-dissolved bentonite immersed in distilled water. The swelling deformation decreased significantly with increases in the concentration of NaOH solution and reaction time, and this was mainly due to montmorillonite dissolution. The fractal e–p relationship (e is the void ratio and p is the vertical pressure) with two calculation coefficients (the swelling coefficient and the fractal dimension) was employed to determine the swelling of alkaline-dissolved bentonite. The fractal dimension increased slightly with increasing reaction time or concentration of NaOH solution, as the dissolution traces caused by the alkaline solution favoured an increase in the irregularity and fractality of the bentonite surface. The swelling coefficient decreased linearly with decreasing montmorillonite content. In addition, the swelling coefficient and the fractal dimension were related exponentially to the reaction time in alkaline solution. A relationship between the swelling of alkaline-dissolved samples and the reaction time was proposed, which might be used to assess the swelling properties of bentonite barriers that would be affected by long-term dissolution of the alkaline solution in a closed repository.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with a high risk of suicide. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of suicide attempts (SA) in patients with BD and its associated factors.
A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from their inception to 11 June 2018. The prevalence of SA in BD was synthesised using the random-effects model.
The search identified 3451 articles of which 79 studies with 33 719 subjects met the study entry criteria. The lifetime prevalence of SA was 33.9% (95% CI 31.3–36.6%; I2 = 96.4%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was positively associated with female gender, BD-I, BD Not Otherwise Specified and rapid cycling BD subtypes, income level and geographic region.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA is common in BD and identified a number of factors related to SA. Further efforts are necessary to facilitate the identification and prevention of SA in BD. Long-term use of mood stabilisers coupled with psycho-social interventions should be available to BD patients to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour.
Suicide attempt is an important indicator of suicide and potential future mortality. However, the prevalence of suicide attempts has been inconsistent across studies. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia and associated correlates.
Relevant publications in Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of science and Cochrane were systematically searched. Data on the prevalence of suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia were pooled using a random-effects model.
Thirty-five studies with 16 747 individuals with schizophrenia were included. The pooled lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 26.8% (95% CI 22.1–31.9%; I2 = 97.0%), while the 1-year prevalence, 1-month prevalence and the prevalence of suicide attempts from illness onset were 3.0% (95% CI 2.3–3.7%; I2 = 95.6%), 2.7% (95% CI 2.1–3.4%; I2 = 78.5%) and 45.9% (95% CI 42.1–49.9%; I2 = 0), respectively. Earlier age of onset (Q = 4.38, p = 0.04), high-income countries (Q = 53.29, p < 0.001), North America and Europe and Central Asia (Q = 32.83, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of suicide attempts.
Suicide attempts are common in individuals with schizophrenia, especially those with an early age of onset and living in high-income countries and regions. Regular screening and effective preventive measures should be implemented as part of the clinical care.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
Owing to lack of a definitive correlation between carbon supports and catalytic activity of single-atom Fe-active sites, rational design and preparation of single-atom Fe catalysts have so far been elusive. Herein we designed and prepared one-dimensional core–shell nanostructured single-atom Fe catalysts, in which carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes with different crystallinities and electrical conductivities were used as supports to host single-atom Fe-active sites. It was found that the carbon supports with higher electrical conductivity accelerate charge transfer and enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of single-atom Fe-active sites as well as the ORR durability of the final catalyst.
Fingerprint-based indoor localisation suffers from influences such as fingerprint pre-collection, environment changes and expending a lot of manpower and time to update the radio map. To solve the problem, we propose an efficient radio map updating algorithm based on K-Means and Gaussian Process Regression (KMGPR). The algorithm builds a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) predictive model based on a Gaussian mean function and realises the update of the radio map using K-Means. We have conducted experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm and results show that GPR using the Gaussian mean function improves localisation accuracy by about 13·76% compared with other functions and KMGPR can reduce the computational complexity by about 7% to 20% with no obvious effects on accuracy.
Carbon nanodots (CDs) have generated enormous excitement because of their superiority in water solubility, chemical inertness, low toxicity, ease of functionalization and resistance to photobleaching. Here we report a facile thermal pyrolysis route to prepare CDs with high quantum yield (QY) using citric acid as the carbon source and ethylene diamine derivatives (EDAs) including triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and polyene polyamine (PEPA) as the passivation agents. We find that the CDs prepared from EDAs, such as TETA, TEPA and PEPA, show relatively high photoluminescence (PL) QY (11.4, 10.6, and 9.8%, respectively) at λex of 465 nm. The cytotoxicity of the CDs has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo bio-imaging studies. The results indicate that these CDs possess low toxicity and good biocompatibility. The unique properties such as the high PL QY at large excitation wave length and the low toxicity of the resulting CDs make them promising fluorescent nanoprobes for applications in optical bio-imaging and biosensing.
It is well established that estrogen and progesterone are critical endogenous hormones that are essential for implantation and pregnancy in females. However, the distribution of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) in female reproductive tracts is elusive. Herein, we report that after serial treatments with pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) with or without anti-PMSG (AP), mice could regulate the distribution of ERα and PR in the murine ovary, oviduct and uterus and the level of estradiol in serum. ERα and PR regulation by PMSG and anti-PMSG was estrous cycle-dependent and critical for promoting the embryo-implantation period. Furthermore, our results suggested that AP-42 h treatment is more effective than the other treatments. In contrast, other treatment groups also affected the distribution of ERα and PR in mouse reproductive tracts. Thus, we found that anti-PMSG has the potential to restore the distribution of ERα and PR, which could effectively reduce the negative impact of residual estrogen caused by the normal superovulation effect of PMSG in mice.
Sui SG, Wu MX, King ME, Zhang Y, Ling L, Xu JM, Weng XC, Duan L, Shan BC, Li LJ. Abnormal grey matter in victims of rape with PTSD in Mainland China: a voxel-based morphometry study.
This study examined changes in brain grey matter in victims of rape (VoR) with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research has focused on PTSD caused by various traumatic events, such as war and disaster, among others. Although considerable research has focused on rape-related PTSD, limited studies have been carried out in the context of Mainland China.
The study included 11 VoR with PTSD, 8 VoR without PTSD and 12 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry to explore changes in brain grey-matter density (GMD) by applying statistical parametric mapping to high-resolution magnetic resonance images.
Compared with HC, VoR with PTSD showed significant GMD reductions in the bilateral medial frontal cortex, left middle frontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus and fusiform cortex and significant GMD increases in the right posterior cingulate cortex, postcentral cortex, bilateral precentral cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Compared to VoR without PTSD, VoR with PTSD showed significant GMD reductions in the right uncus, left middle temporal gyrus, and the fusiform cortex, and increases in the left precentral cortex, inferior parietal lobule and right post-central cortex.
The findings of abnormal GMD in VoR with PTSD support the hypothesis that PTSD is associated with widespread anatomical changes in the brain. The medial frontal cortex, precentral cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, post-central cortex and inferior parietal lobule may play important roles in the neuropathology of PTSD.
Soya isoflavones (SIF) and folic acid (FA) both confer the biological properties of antioxidation; however, the mechanism of their antioxidant effect on nervous system development is unclear. Our purpose is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of SIF, FA or co-administration of SIF with FA against β-amyloid 1-40 (Aβ1-40)-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. In the present study, the learning and memory ability of rats and the amount of amyloid-positive neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 area were measured. The levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum and brain tissue were also measured. The results showed that intracerebroventricular administration of Aβ1-40 resulted in a dramatic prolongation of the escape latency; however, in the SIF, FA and SIF+FA treatment groups, the functional deficits of learning and memory were significantly improved. Moreover, after Aβ1-40 injection, the levels of T-AOC and GSH were profoundly decreased, suggesting a decline of antioxidant activity in the rats. However, intragastric pre-treatment with SIF, or FA, or SIF+FA resulted in a significant increase of antioxidative activity. SIF, or FA, or SIF+FA treatments also reversed the Aβ1-40-induced increase in the amount of amyloid-positive neurons. These results suggest that: (1) learning or memory impairment in experimental rats was caused by Aβ1-40, which is probably attributed to Aβ-induced oxidative damage and deposition of β-amyloid peptides in the brain; (2) pre-administration of SIF and/or FA may prevent the pathological alterations caused by Aβ1-40 treatment and the neuroprotective effects of SIF and/or FA are indicated.
The morphology of ZnO submicron crystals formed in a weak alkaline environment (pH value less than 11.0) was systematically studied for the first time. ZnO submicron particles with different morphologies (flowers, rod, and wire) were synthesized from an aqueous solution by adopting ethylenediamine as the source of hydroxyl group, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as the additive, and potassium chloride (KCl) as the background electrolyte. The effects of primary experimental parameters such as HMT and KCl addition, precursor concentration, and reaction temperature on the microstructure, crystallinity of the resultant particles, and their distribution on substrate are discussed in this paper. In the flowerlike structure, the particle size is more controlled by the precursor concentration, and the microstructure is modulated by increasing the concentration of HMT and the reaction temperature. The introduction of ZnO seed layer on substrate promotes even distribution of ZnO flowers. High concentration KCl electrolyte inhibits formation of the flowerlike structure and promotes the growth of submicron ZnO crystals in rod or wire shape. Mechanism studies indicate that the degree of supersaturation of Zn(OH)2 and the adsorption of organic/inorganic species on the surface of ZnO are the prime factors influencing the nucleation, growth rate, and eventual morphology.
ZnO films are grown by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method on ZnO seeding layer deposited on Si (100) by pulsed laser deposition. The resultant film possesses a columnar microstructure perpendicular to the substrate and exhibits smooth, dense, and uniform morphology. The preferred orientation along the c-axis of the film is significantly enhanced compared to that without the seeding layer. ZnO film grown on ZnO-seeded silicon exhibits higher hall mobility, lower resisitivity, and higher photoluminescence intensity.
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