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Due to the complex architectural diversity of biological networks, there is an increasing need to complement statistical analyses with a qualitative and local description of their spatial properties. One such network is the extracellular matrix (ECM), a biological scaffold for which changes in its spatial organization significantly impact tissue functions in health and disease. Quantifying variations in the fibrillar architecture of major ECM proteins should considerably advance our understanding of the link between tissue structure and function. Inspired by the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images, we propose a novel statistical analysis approach embedded into a machine learning paradigm, to measure and detect local variations of meaningful ECM parameters. We show that parametric maps representing fiber length and pore directionality can be analyzed within the proposed framework to differentiate among various tissue states. The parametric maps are derived from graph-based representations that reflect the network architecture of fibronectin (FN) fibers in a normal, or disease-mimicking in vitro setting. Such tools can potentially lead to a better characterization of dynamic matrix networks within fibrotic tumor microenvironments and contribute to the development of better imaging modalities for monitoring their remodeling and normalization following therapeutic intervention.
The present article is an overview of some mathematical results, which
provide elements of rigorous basis for some multiscale
computations in materials science. The emphasis is laid upon atomistic
to continuum limits for crystalline materials. Various mathematical
approaches are addressed. The
setting is stationary. The relation to existing techniques used in the engineering
literature is investigated.
In order to describe a solid which deforms smoothly in some region, but
non smoothly in some other region, many multiscale methods have recently
been proposed. They aim at coupling an atomistic model (discrete
mechanics) with a macroscopic model
We provide here a theoretical ground for such a coupling in a
one-dimensional setting. We briefly study the general case of a convex
energy, and next concentrate on
a specific example of a nonconvex energy, the Lennard-Jones case. In the
latter situation, we prove that the discretization needs to account in
an adequate way for the coexistence of a discrete model and a continuous
one. Otherwise, spurious discretization effects may appear.
We provide a numerical analysis of the approach.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACoAC) catalyses the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA. This product plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy metabolism since it is both a substrate for fatty acid synthesis and an inhibitor of the oxidative pathway. The present study was initiated to analyse the modulation of ACoAC activity in liver and selected extrahepatic tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary changes as a contribution to the understanding of the nutritional control of lipid metabolism in fish. Short-term effects of food intake were studied by measuring ACoAC activity in the liver and dorsal white muscle at different time intervals after a meal. Only slight variations were observed in the muscle during the period 2–72 h after the meal. The long-term effects of an increase in dietary lipids or carbohydrates levels were examined by measuring ACoAC activity in the liver, adipose tissue, intestine, kidney, red muscle, dorsal and ventral white muscles of trout after 3 months of feeding with different diets. ACoAC activity is stimulated by a high-digestible starch diet in the abdominal adipose tissue and the white muscle. A high-lipid diet decreases ACoAC activity in the liver and the intestine, but not in other tissues. Contrary to mammals, a rapid adaptation of ACoAC activity to food supply is not effective in rainbow trout. However, a long-term nutritional control of ACoAC activity does occur in this species, but the target tissue differs with the predominant non-protein energy sources in the diet. The present results suggest the potential existence of two ACoAC isoforms with different tissue distribution as has been observed in mammals and birds.