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The driving mechanism of solar flares and coronal mass ejections is a topic of ongoing debate, apart from the consensus that magnetic reconnection plays a key role during the impulsive process. While present solar research mostly depends on observations and theoretical models, laboratory experiments based on high-energy density facilities provide the third method for quantitatively comparing astrophysical observations and models with data achieved in experimental settings. In this article, we show laboratory modeling of solar flares and coronal mass ejections by constructing the magnetic reconnection system with two mutually approaching laser-produced plasmas circumfused of self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. Due to the Euler similarity between the laboratory and solar plasma systems, the present experiments demonstrate the morphological reproduction of flares and coronal mass ejections in solar observations in a scaled sense, and confirm the theory and model predictions about the current-sheet-born anomalous plasmoid as the initial stage of coronal mass ejections, and the behavior of moving-away plasmoid stretching the primary reconnected field lines into a secondary current sheet conjoined with two bright ridges identified as solar flares.
In ignition targets designs, U or U based cocktail hohlraum are usually used because the Rosseland mean opacity of U is higher than for Au at the radiation temperature for ignition. However, it should be noted that the opacity of U is obviously lower than for Au when the radiation temperature falls into a low temperature region. Because the depth penetrated by radiation is only several micrometers under a 300eV drive, and also because there is a prepulse longer than 10 ns prepulse at temperatures lower than 170 eV in the radiation drive of ignition target designs. Therefore we propose an Au + U + Au sandwich hohlraum for ignition targets in this work. Compared to the cocktail, the sandwich not only remarkably simplifies the fabrication and uses less depleted U material, but also increases the albedo during the prepulse.
Generation of high speed dense plasma blocks is well known from
hydrodynamic theory and computations (PIC) with experimental confirmation
by Badziak et al. (2005) since ps laser
pulses with power above TW are available. These blocks may be used for
fusion flame generation (thermonuclear propagation) in uncompressed solid
state deuterium and tritium for very high gain uncomplicated operation in
power stations. Hydrodynamic theory from computations from the end of
1970s to recent, genuine two fluid computations support the skin layer
accelerations (SLA), by nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces as measured now
in details under the uniquely selected conditions to suppress relativistic
self-focusing by high contrast ratio and to keep plane geometry
interaction. It is shown how the now available PW-ps laser pulses may
provide the very extreme conditions for generating the fusion flames in
solid state density DT.
Measurements of the ion emission from targets irradiated with
neodymium glass and iodine lasers were analyzed and a very significant
anomaly observed. The fastest ions with high charge number Z,
which usually are of megaelectron volt energy following the
relativistic self-focusing and nonlinear-force acceleration theory,
were reduced to less than 50 times lower energies when 1.2 ps laser
pulses of about 1 J were incident. We clarify this discrepancy by the
model of skin depth plasma front interaction in contrast to the
relativistic self-focusing with filament generation. This was indicated
also from the unique fact that the ion number was independent of the
laser intensity. The skin layer theory prescribes prepulse control and
lower (near relativistic threshold) laser intensities for
nonlinear-force-driven plasma blocks for high-gain ignition similar to
light ion beam fusion.
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