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This study aimed to analyse the temporal and spatial trends in the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder related to bullying victimisation on global, regional and country scales.
Data were from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study. We assessed the global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, per 100 000 population) of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation by age, sex and geographical location. The percentage changes in age-standardised rates of DALYs were used to quantify temporal trends, and the annual rate changes across 204 countries and territories were used to present spatial trends. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between the sociodemographic index (SDI) and the burden of anxiety disorders as well as major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation and its spatial and temporal characteristics globally.
From 1990 to 2019, the global DALY rates of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased by 23.31 and 26.60%, respectively, with 27.27 and 29.07% for females and 18.88 and 23.84% for males. Across the 21 GBD regions, the highest age-standardised rates of bullying victimisation-related DALYs for anxiety disorders were in North Africa and the Middle East and for major depressive disorder in High-income North America. From 1990 to 2019, the region with the largest percentage increase in the rates of DALYs was High-income North America (54.66% for anxiety disorders and 105.88% for major depressive disorder), whereas the region with the slowest growth rate or largest percentage decline was East Asia (1.71% for anxiety disorders and −25.37% for major depressive disorder). In terms of SDI, this study found overall upward trends of bullying-related mental disorders in areas regardless of the SDI levels, although there were temporary downward trends in some stages of certain areas.
The number and rates of DALYs of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder attributable to bullying victimisation increased from 1990 to 2019. Effective strategies to eliminate bullying victimisation in children and adolescents are needed to reduce the burden of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder. Considering the large variations in the burden by SDI and geographic location, future protective actions should be developed based on the specific cultural contexts, development status and regional characteristics of each country.
In view of the cooperative guidance problem with time delay, this paper proposes a two-stage time-delay prescribed-time cooperative guidance law in the three-dimensional (3D) space. In the first stage, by introducing a time scaling function and time-delay consensus, the proposed cooperative guidance law can overcome the negative influence of time delay to guaranteed the desired convergence performance. Derived from the Lyapunov convergence analysis, the time-delay stability of the first stage can be ensured and the convergence time can be described as the relationship between delayed time and mission-assigned convergence time. Then, taking the prescribed-time-related convergence time as the switching point, the second stage begins with suitable initial conditions and all interceptors are governed by proportional navigation guidance. Finally, comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed time-delay guidance law.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
For the safety problems caused by the limited landing space of the deck during the arresting process of the carrier-based aircraft, a dynamic model of the carrier-based aircraft’s landing and arresting is built. Based on the batch simulation method, the lateral dynamics safety envelope of the aircraft during the arresting was defined, and the dynamic response of the key points in the envelope during the arresting process was investigated. Subsequently, the influence of engine thrust and aircraft quality on the arresting safety envelope was studied based on reasonable safety evaluation indicators, and the safety status envelope of the deck arresting was given. Then, the particular Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation is used to obtain the lateral dynamics safety envelope of the carrier-based aircraft in the process of landing and arresting by backward inversion. Results indicate that engine thrust and landing quality have little effect on the yaw angle in the arresting safety boundary during the arresting. Additionally, with the engine thrust and landing quality increase, the maximum safe off-centre distance gradually decreases, and the safety boundary decreases accordingly. During the phase of landing glide, the engine thrust and quality have little effect on the maximum safe eccentric distance. When the engine thrust is increased by 40%, the maximum safe yaw angle is reduced from 0.3°, and the safety boundary is reduced by 4.2%. When the aircraftquality increases by 40%, the maximum safe yaw angle is reduced by 0.4°, and the safety boundary is reduced by 2.8%. The findings of this paper can provide framework for the research on theaircraft-to-carrier dynamic matching characteristics of the carrier-based system, and is of great significance to the research on improving the safety of the carrier-based aircraft landing arresting.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Clinical studies and practical use of amisulpride in Chinese population were rarely reported.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
To assess the change of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) and adverse events emerged during the study.
In this national, prospective, open-label, multicenter, single arm study, 316 patients with ICD-10 diagnosis schizophrenia were treated with amisulpride for 8 weeks. The PANSS was primarily used for efficacy evaluation.
Of the 295 patients included for efficacy analysis, 66.8% reached a decrease of ≥50% PANSS total score at week 8. The mean (SD) baseline PANSS total score was 89.1 (13.7), as the study proceeded, the score decreased to 73.0 (17.7), 60.7 (17.6) and 51.0 (14.6) at week 2, 4 and 8 visits, respectively. The mean (SD) PANSS positive subscale score decreased from 23.8 (5.7) at baseline to 18.1 (6.2) at week 2, 14.1 (5.5) at week 4, and 11.1 (4.1) at week 8. The mean (SD) PANSS negative subscale score decreased from 23.7 (7.9) at baseline to 20.7 (8.0) at week 2, 17.8 (7.8) at week 4, and 15.2 (7.0) at week 8. All above measures were significantly improved at each post-baseline visit compared with baseline (P>0.05). Extrapyramidal disorder (25.9%) and blood prolactin increase (25.9%) were the most frequently reported adverse events, but the incidence of endocrine disorders (8.2%) was relatively low.
Amisulpride had both good clinical efficacy and safety profile for Chinese schizophrenic patients.
Rare research was reported about assessing the effectiveness and safety of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia before we performed the ESCAPE, a multicenter, single-arm, phase IV study (NCT01795183). This study is a cluster analysis of ESCAPE study.
To identify the effectiveness patterns of amisulpride in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
To examine baseline characteristics of patients as potential predictors of effectiveness.
Time-series cluster analysis was performed to identify effectiveness trajectories bases on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores in Chinese patients with schizophrenia received amisulpride for 8 weeks. Baseline characteristics of patients were examined.
Overall, 295 patients were included for efficacy analysis. Four response trajectories based on positive PANSS were identified (Figure 1): (1) rapid response (cluster 1); (2) gradual response (cluster 2); (3) sustained low level (cluster 3); (4) poor response (cluster 4). Age in cluster 4 was significantly higher than that in cluster 1 and cluster 3 (Table 1, P = 0.0025 and 0.0032, respectively). Similarly, four response trajectories based on negative PANSS were generated (Figure 2): (1) rapid response (cluster 1); (2) gradual response (cluster 2); (3) poor response with moderate PANSS (cluster 3); (4) poor response with high PANSS (cluster 4). Male to female ratio in cluster 1 was significantly lower than that in cluster 2 and cluster 3 (Table 2, P = 0.0042 and 0.0208, respectively).
For the first time, we obtained effectiveness patterns of amisulpride-treated Chinese patients. Age and gender may be predictors of effectiveness.
Disclosure of interest
This study is being funded by Sanofi (China) Investment Co., Ltd.
Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) is a common pest in sericulture and has developed resistance to different insecticides. However, the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis are poorly understood. Here, we present the first whole-transcriptome analysis of differential expression genes in insecticide-resistant and susceptible G. pyloalis. Clustering and enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed several biological pathways and enriched Gene Ontology terms were related to detoxification or insecticide resistance. Genes involved in insecticide metabolic processes, including cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterase, were identified in the larval midgut of G. pyloalis. Among them, CYP324A19, CYP304F17, CYP6AW1, CYP6AB10, GSTs5, and AChE-like were significantly increased after propoxur treatment, while CYP324A19, CCE001c, and AChE-like were significantly induced by phoxim, suggesting that these genes were involved in insecticide metabolism. Furthermore, the sequence variation analysis identified 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms within CYP9A20, CYP6AB47, and CYP6AW1. Our findings reveal many candidate genes related to insecticide resistance of G. pyloalis. These results provide novel insights into insecticide resistance and facilitate the development of insecticides with greater specificity to G. pyloalis.
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens in Beijing, China, is rarely reported. In this study, 34 911 symptomatic outpatients with suspected genital infections who attended outpatient clinics in a tertiary care hospital were included to investigate the updated prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2016 in Beijing, China. Results indicated that a decrease trend (UU, CT, NG and HSV) in male and an increase trend (UU, CT and NG) in female were observed during the period. Patients aged 20–39 years old were mostly affected by these pathogens, while the prevalence in patients aged 20–29 years old was the highest, The prevalence of UU in male was significantly lower than in female (31.5% vs. 49.3%, P < 0.05), while the prevalence of NG in male was significantly higher than in female (2.5% vs. 0.8%, P < 0.05). In patients with co-infections, 60.6% of male and 71.4% of female were co-infected by UU + CT. In total, 11.9% and 88.1% of patients with HSV infections were confirmed to be infected by HSV-1 and HSV-2. This study could contribute to a better understanding of the current epidemiological features of UU, NG, CT and HSV among symptomatic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Beijing, China, and thus facilitate to develop more effective intervention, prevention and treatment of STI.
To investigate the morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique computed tomography images.
The computed tomography temporal bone scans of 112 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Midpoint and opercular measurements were performed using axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images. Morphometric analyses were also conducted. The vestibular aqueduct sizes on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images were compared.
At the midpoint, the mean (± standard deviation) vestibular aqueduct measured 0.61 ± 0.23 mm, 0.74 ± 0.27 mm and 0.82 ± 0.38 mm on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the vestibular aqueduct measured 0.91 ± 0.30 mm, 1.11 ± 0.45 mm and 1.66 ± 1.07 mm on the respective images. The co-efficients of variation of the vestibular aqueduct measured at the midpoint were 37.4 per cent, 36.5 per cent and 47.5 per cent on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the measurements were 33.0 per cent, 40.5 per cent and 64.5 per cent. Regarding morphology, the vestibular aqueduct was fissured (33.5 per cent), tubular (64.3 per cent) or invisible (2.2 per cent).
The morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct were highly variable among axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images.
In this study, poly(methyl methacrylate-maleic anhydride) (P(MMA-MAh)) was synthesized in toluene from methyl methacrylate (MMA) and maleic anhydride (MAh) monomers via free radical polymerization, in the presence of 2,2′-Azo-bis-isobutyronitrile (AIBN), as initiator at 80ºC for 8 h. The molar ratio of monomers was found to be 1 MAh:8 MMA using hydrolysis and titration. The molecular weight of co-polymer was determined to be of the order of 104 (g/mol) by gel permeation chromatography. The co-polymer was characterized using Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the initial decomposition temperature was ~270ºC. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the glass transition temperature was near 126ºC.
Rectorite modified with benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (OREC) was used as an additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which consisted of P(MMA-MAh) used as a polymer matrix, propylene carbonate (PC) as a plasticizer and LiClO4 as the lithium ion source. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that OREC can exfoliate well in GPEs when the amount of clay is suitable. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the resulting GPEs agreed well with the VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) relation. OREC doses of 5 phr resulted in the greatest ionic conductivity. This OREC addition considerably improved the plasticized retention levels. As a consequence of OREC occupying the free volume space in the polymer matrix of GPEs, the bulk resistance of the GPEs was reduced and the glass transition temperature (Tg) increased.
In liquid-filled batteries, the liquid electrolytes may escape or present a fire hazard and an inert spacer is needed to separate the electrodes. Alternative polymer-based electrolytes are of current technological interest. Solid polymer electrolytes are non-volatile, non-corrosive materials, which can readily be processed into any shape or size. However, despite possessing the required mechanical properties, they have inherently lower conductivity. Gel-based systems are an attempt to strike a balance between the high conductivity of organic liquid electrolytes and the dimensional stability of a solid polymer.
Rectorite was modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride to form organic-modified rectorite (OREC). OREC was used as a filler additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) and prepare composite gel polymer electrolytes (CPEs) which consisted of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as a polymer matrix, propylene carbonate (PC), used as a plasticizer, and LiClO4, used as a lithium ion producer. A variety of physical and chemical techniques was used to characterize the CPEs. The interlayer d spacing of OREC was much larger than that of the initial rectorite (2.22 nm). OREC also possesses a fine microscopic structure, and has a hydrophobic surface. Molau and XRD analysis of CPEs indicate that OREC has good compatibility with the components of CPEs and can be dispersed well. The effects of temperature and OREC dose on properties were studied. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity of CPEs is well fitted by the VTF (Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher) relation. OREC doses of 5 phr gave the greatest ionic conductivity. This amount also greatly increased the plasticizer maintenance levels. Due to the occupancy of free volume space in the polymer matrix of CPEs by OREC, the bulk resistance of the CPEs was lowered and the glass transition temperature (Tg) increased. The sheet structure of OREC is thought to improve the decomposition temperature of CPEs.
Rectorite (REC) was modified with dodecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (1227) to form an organic-modified rectorite, termed OREC. The OREC was used as a filler additive to modify gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) which consisted of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC) and LiClO4. Studies of ionic conductivity and viscosity of liquid electrolytes and pure PC, respectively, clearly showed that these properties are greatly influenced by temperature and the amount of OREC added; a consequence of the interactions between the components of CPEs. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that there were two kinds of interaction: namely (1) a strong hydrogen bond between Si–OH and C=O of PC and (2) a weak interaction between Li+ and C=O. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) research supported the FTIR interpretation, indicating that the two interactions exist and that the H bond is the stronger of the two. In CPEs, the polymer matrix of PMMA merely supports the active components and does not influence the interactions between them. The OREC greatly increased the crucial plasticizer maintenance property when the amount of clay added was optimum.
Fermented soybean meal (FSM), which has lower anti-nutritional factors and higher active enzyme, probiotic and oligosaccharide contents than its unfermented form, has been reported to improve the feeding value of soybean meal, and hence, the growth performance of piglets. However, whether FSM can affect the bacterial and metabolites in the large intestine of piglets remains unknown. This study supplemented wet-FSM (WFSM) or dry-FSM (DFSM) (5% dry matter basis) in the diet of piglets and investigated its effects on carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the piglets’ large intestines. A total of 75 41-day-old Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire piglets with an initial BW of 13.14±0.22 kg were used in a 4-week feeding trial. Our results showed that the average daily gain of piglets in the WFSM and DFSM groups increased by 27.08% and 14.58% and that the feed conversion ratio improved by 18.18% and 7.27%, respectively, compared with the control group. Data from the prediction gene function of Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing showed that carbohydrate metabolism function families in the WFSM and DFSM groups increased by 3.46% and 2.68% and that the amino acid metabolism function families decreased by 1.74% and 0.82%, respectively, compared with the control group. These results were consistent with those of other metabolism studies, which showed that dietary supplementation with WFSM and DFSM increased the level of carbohydrate-related metabolites (e.g. 4-aminobutanoate, 5-aminopentanoate, lactic acid, mannitol, threitol and β-alanine) and decreased the levels of those related to protein catabolism (e.g. 1,3-diaminopropane, creatine, glycine and inosine). In conclusion, supplementation with the two forms of FSM improved growth performance, increased metabolites of carbohydrate and reduced metabolites of protein in the large intestine of piglets, and WFSM exhibited a stronger effect than DFSM.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The current experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary protein levels and rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) supplementation on ruminal fermentation, microbial enzyme activity, bacterial populations and urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in growing beef steers. Low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) diets were fed to eight ruminally cannulated first-generation cross-bred (Blonde d'Aquitaine × Simmental) beef steers with or without RPFA supplementation. Steers were fed a total mixed ration, and dietary concentrate to maize silage ratio was 50 : 50 (dry matter (DM) basis). No interaction between dietary crude protein (CP) levels and RPFA supplementation was observed during the experiment. Ruminal pH was unaffected by RPFA supplementation, but decreased with increasing dietary CP levels. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. Molar proportion of acetate increased with RPFA supplementation, but tended to decrease with increasing dietary CP levels. The proportion of propionate decreased with RPFA supplementation, but was unaffected by dietary CP levels. As a result, the acetate to propionate ratio increased with RPFA supplementation, but tended to be lower for the HP diets than the LP diets. Ammonia-nitrogen content decreased with RPFA supplementation, but increased with increasing dietary CP levels. In situ ruminal degradability of maize straw and concentrate increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. Microbial enzyme (carboxymethyl-cellulase, cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase, α-amylase and protease) activity, bacterial populations (Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminobacter amylophilus) and urinary PD excretion increased with increasing dietary CP levels or RPFA supplementation. The current study showed that increasing dietary CP levels from 109·1 to 130·7 g/kg DM or supplementing 75 mg RPFA improved ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis by increasing bacterial population and microbial enzyme activity.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect and mode of action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YST2) on enteric methane (CH4) mitigation in pigs. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire male finisher pigs (60±1 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups: a basal diet (control); and a basal diet supplemented with 3 g/YST2 (1.8×1010 live cells/g) per kg diet. At the end of 32-day experiment, pigs were sacrificed and redox potential (Eh), pH, volatile fatty acid concentration, densities of methanogens and acetogens, and expression of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene were determined in digesta contents from the cecum, colon and rectum. Results showed that S. cerevisiae YST2 decreased (P<0.05) the average daily enteric CH4 production by 25.3%, lowered the pH value from 6.99 to 6.69 in the rectum, and increased the Eh value in cecum and colon by up to −55 mV (P<0.05). Fermentation patterns were also altered by supplementation of YST2 as reflected by the lower acetate, and higher propionate molar proportion in the cecum and colon (P<0.05), resulting in lower acetate : propionate ratio (P<0.05). Moreover, there was a 61% decrease in Methanobrevibacter species in the upper colon (P<0.05) and a 19% increase in the acetogen community in the cecum (P<0.05) of treated pigs. Results of our study concluded that supplementation of S. cerevisiae YST2 at 3 g/kg substantially decreased enteric CH4 production in pigs.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fiber on methanogenic diversity and community composition in the hindgut of indigenous Chinese Lantang gilts to explain the unexpected findings reported earlier that Lantang gilts fed low-fiber diet (LFD) produced more methane than those fed high-fiber diet (HFD). In total, 12 Lantang gilts (58.7±0.37 kg) were randomly divided into two dietary groups (six replicates (pigs) per group) and fed either LFD (NDF=201.46 g/kg) or HFD (NDF=329.70 g/kg). Wheat bran was the main source of fiber for the LFD, whereas ground rice hull (mixture of rice hull and rice bran) was used for the HFD. Results showed that the methanogens in the hindgut of Lantang gilts belonged to four known species (Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter wolinii, Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii), with about 89% of the methanogens belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies of Methanobrevibacter were more than three times higher (P<0.05) for gilts fed LFD (3.31×109 copies/g dry matter (DM)) than gilts fed HFD (1.02×109 copies/g DM). No difference (P>0.05) was observed in 16S rRNA gene copies of Fibrobacter succinogenes between the two dietary groups, and 18S rRNA gene copies of anaerobic fungi in gilts fed LFD were lower than (P<0.05) those fed HFD. To better explain the effect of different fiber source on the methanogen community, a follow-up in vitro fermentation using a factorial design comprised of two inocula (prepared from hindgut content of gilts fed two diets differing in their dietary fiber)×four substrates (LFD, HFD, wheat bran, ground rice hull) was conducted. Results of the in vitro fermentation confirmed that the predominant methanogens belonged to the genus of Methanobrevibacter, and about 23% methanogens was found to be distantly related (90%) to Thermogymnomonas acidicola. In vitro fermentation also seems to suggest that fiber source did change the methanogens community. Although the density of Methanobrevibacter species was positively correlated with CH4 production in both in vivo (P<0.01, r=0.737) and in vitro trials (P<0.05, r=0.854), which could partly explain the higher methane production from gilts fed LFD compared with those in the HFD group. Further investigation is needed to explain how the rice hull affected the methanogens and inhibited CH4 emission from gilts fed HFD.
Biased assessment of tillage impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration are often associated with a lack of information on the initial level of SOC stocks. The present study reported the changes in SOC concentrations and stocks following 10-year different tillage practices relative to the initial SOC levels. The tillage trial included no tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT) and mouldboard plough (MP) on a Black soil (Hapludolls) in Northeast China. Results showed that tillage, soil depth and time significantly affected SOC concentration and SOC stock. Tillage and crop residue retention had great impacts on the SOC concentrations in the top 0·1 m layer. Compared with MP and NT, RT resulted in higher SOC concentration and SOC stock in the plough layer (0–0·2 m), which became more obvious with time. The soil under NT and RT had higher stratification ratios (SR) of SOC (SR, the ratio of SOC concentration in 0–0·05 m to that in 0·1–0·2 m) than under MP. Significant positive and nearly identical linear relationships between the SR of SOC and the duration of tillage practices occurred for both NT and RT soils; the increased SR in NT resulted from both SOC increase in surface and SOC decrease in subsurface soils, but in RT, the increased SR was only from a substantial SOC increase in surface soil. Accordingly, the present study highlights that RT was more helpful than NT in carbon sequestration for the studied Black soil in Northeast China.