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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unprecedented threat to mental health. Herein, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on subthreshold depressive symptoms and identified potential mitigating factors.
Participants were from Depression Cohort in China (ChiCTR registry number 1900022145). Adults (n = 1722) with subthreshold depressive symptoms were enrolled between March and October 2019 in a 6-month, community-based interventional study that aimed to prevent clinical depression using psychoeducation. A total of 1506 participants completed the study in Shenzhen, China: 726 participants, who completed the study between March 2019 and January 2020 (i.e. before COVID-19), comprised the ‘wave 1’ group; 780 participants, who were enrolled before COVID-19 and completed the 6-month endpoint assessment during COVID-19, comprised ‘wave 2’. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed at baseline and endpoint (i.e. 6-month follow-up) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), respectively. Measures of resilience and regular exercise were assessed at baseline. We compared the mental health outcomes between wave 1 and wave 2 groups. We additionally investigated how mental health outcomes changed across disparate stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, i.e. peak (7–13 February), post-peak (14–27 February), remission plateau (28 February−present).
COVID-19 increased the risk for three mental outcomes: (1) depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.62); (2) anxiety (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.16–1.88) and (3) insomnia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–1.77). The highest proportion of probable depression and anxiety was observed post-peak, with 52.9% and 41.4%, respectively. Greater baseline resilience scores had a protective effect on the three main outcomes (depression: OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.19–0.37; anxiety: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.14–0.33 and insomnia: OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.11–0.28). Furthermore, regular physical activity mitigated the risk for depression (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99).
The COVID-19 pandemic exerted a highly significant and negative impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia. Mental health outcomes fluctuated as a function of the duration of the pandemic and were alleviated to some extent with the observed decline in community-based transmission. Augmenting resiliency and regular exercise provide an opportunity to mitigate the risk for mental health symptoms during this severe public health crisis.
To evaluate the dynamic properties of a coupled structure based on the dynamic properties of its substructures, this paper investigates the dynamic substructuring issue from the perspective of response prediction. The main idea is that the connecting forces at the interface of substructures can be expressed by the unknown coupled structural responses, and the responses can be solved rather easily. Not only rigidly coupled structures but also resiliently coupled structures are investigated. In order to further comprehend and visualize the nature of coupling problems, the Neumann series expansion for a matrix describing the relation between the coupled and uncoupled substructures is also introduced in this paper. Compared with existing response prediction methods, the proposed method does not have to measure any forces, which makes it easier to apply than the others. Clearly, the frequency response function matrix of coupled structures can be derived directly based on the response prediction method. Compared with existing frequency response function synthesis methods, it is more straightforward and comprehensible. Through demonstration of two examples, it is concluded that the proposed method can deal with structural coupling problems very well.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is effective in reducing disability in selected patients with stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO), but access to this treatment is suboptimal.
We examined the proportion of patients with LVO who did not receive EVT, the reasons for non-treatment, and the association between time from onset and probability of treatment.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with acute stroke and LVO presenting between January 2017 and June 2018. We used multivariable log-binomial models to determine the association between time and probability of treatment with and without adjustment for age, sex, dementia, active cancer, baseline disability, stroke severity, and evidence of ischemia on computerized tomography.
We identified 256 patients (51% female, median age 74 [interquartile range, IQR 63.5, 82.5]), of whom 59% did not receive EVT. The main reasons for not treating with EVT were related to occlusion characteristics or infarct size. The median time from onset to EVT center arrival was longer among non-treated patients (218 minutes [142, 302]) than those who were treated (180 minutes [104, 265], p = 0.03). Among patients presenting within 6 hours of onset, the relative risk (RR) of receiving EVT decreased by 3% with every 10-minute delay in arrival to EVT center (adjusted RR 0.97 CI95 [0.95, 0.99]). This association was not found in the overall cohort.
The proportion of patients with acute stroke and confirmed LVO who do not undergo EVT is substantial. Minimizing delays in arrival to EVT center may optimize the delivery of this treatment.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine and compare prevalence and correlates of whole blood Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA between HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). Five hundred and four HIV-positive MSM and 504 age-matched HIV-negative MSM were recruited from an HIV counseling and testing clinic in Shanghai, China from November 2014 to November 2015 and were administered with a face-to-face questionnaire interview. Whole blood EBV DNA was tested by nested polymerase chain reaction assays on EBNA-1, EBNA-2, and LMP-1 genes. The prevalence of whole blood EBV DNA was 56·0% (95% CI 51·7–60·3%) among HIV-positive MSM and 26·0% (95% CI 22·4–30·0%) among HIV-negative MSM. Whole blood EBV DNA positivity was significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3·43, 95% CI 2·58–4·57) and frequent intake of pickled, smoked, or salty food (aOR 1·71, 95% CI 1·02–2·86) in the whole sample, and with <200 cells/μl CD4 cell counts (aOR 1·79, 95% CI 1·05–3·05) and pickled, smoked, or salty food intake (aOR 3·14, 95% CI 1·39–7·08) in HIV-positive group. HIV-infected MSM are at higher risk of active EBV replication than HIV-uninfected MSM, underscoring needs of surveillance and research on EBV-related carcinogenesis in this population.
It remains unclear whether the topological deficits of the white matter network documented in cross-sectional studies of chronic schizophrenia patients are due to chronic illness or to other factors such as antipsychotic treatment effects. To answer this question, we evaluated the white matter network in medication-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) before and after a course of treatment.
We performed a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in 42 drug-naive FESP at baseline and then after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy, and compared them with 38 healthy volunteers. Graph theory was utilized to calculate the topological characteristics of brain anatomical network. Patients’ clinical state was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment.
Pretreatment, patients had relatively intact overall topological organizations, and deficient nodal topological properties primarily in prefrontal gyrus and limbic system components such as the bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate. Treatment with risperidone normalized topological parameters in the limbic system, and the enhancement positively correlated with the reduction in PANSS-positive symptoms. Prefrontal topological impairments persisted following treatment and negative symptoms did not improve.
During the early phase of antipsychotic medication treatment there are region-specific alterations in white matter topological measures. Limbic white matter topological dysfunction improves with positive symptom reduction. Prefrontal deficits and negative symptoms are unresponsive to medication intervention, and prefrontal deficits are potential trait biomarkers and targets for negative symptom treatment development.
Both growth and immune capacity are important traits in animal breeding. The animal quantitative trait loci (QTL) database is a valuable resource and can be used for interpreting the genetic mechanisms that underlie growth and immune traits. However, QTL intervals often involve too many candidate genes to find the true causal genes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an effective annotation pipeline that can make full use of the information of Gene Ontology terms annotation, linkage gene blocks and pathways to further identify pleiotropic genes and gene sets in the overlapping intervals of growth-related and immunity-related QTLs. In total, 55 non-redundant QTL overlapping intervals were identified, 1893 growth-related genes and 713 immunity-related genes were further classified into overlapping intervals and 405 pleiotropic genes shared by the two gene sets were determined. In addition, 19 pleiotropic gene linkage blocks and 67 pathways related to immunity and growth traits were discovered. A total of 343 growth-related genes and 144 immunity-related genes involved in pleiotropic pathways were also identified, respectively. We also sequenced and genotyped 284 individuals from Chinese Meishan pigs and European pigs and mapped the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the pleiotropic genes and gene sets that we identified. A total of 971 high-confidence SNPs were mapped to the pleiotropic genes and gene sets that we identified, and among them 743 SNPs were statistically significant in allele frequency between Meishan and European pigs. This study explores the relationship between growth and immunity traits from the view of QTL overlapping intervals and can be generalized to explore the relationships between other traits.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a global public health problem. Many studies have been conducted to identify risk factors for HCV infection. However, some of these studies reported inconsistent results. Using data collected from 11 methadone clinics, we fit both a non-spatial logistical regression and a geographically weighted logistic regression to analyse the association between HCV infection and some factors at the individual level. This study enrolled 5401 patients with 30·0% HCV infection prevalence. The non-spatial logistical regression found that injection history, drug rehabilitation history and senior high-school education or above were related to HCV infection; and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection. Using the spatial model, we found that Yi ethnicity was negatively related to HCV infection in 62·0% of townships, and being married was negatively associated with HCV infection in 81·0% of townships. Senior high-school education or above was positively associated with HCV infection in 55·2% of townships of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture. The spatial model offers better understanding of the geographical variations of the risk factors associated with HCV infection. The geographical variations may be useful for customizing intervention strategies for local regions for more efficient allocation of limited resources to control transmission of HCV.
Based on large-signal theory, a one-dimensional theoretical model of a coaxial vircator is developed to give the microwave gain of the nonlinear beam–wave interaction, and the effect of injected current premodulation on the microwave gain is analysed theoretically. In addition, a coaxial vircator with improved dual-cavity modulation structure, which has the advantage of enhancing the effect of the modulation cavity on the injected electron beam by way of feedback microwaves, is presented. The simulation results are presented to test the validity of the proposed theory, and it can be seen that the system power efficiency can become further strengthened by adjusting the parameters of the microwave feedback channel until the feedback electric field is at the proper phase. Finally, through optimization, a structure capable of generating 7.05 GW average output power and 19.5 % power conversion efficiency at 2.95 GHz operating frequency is obtained.
Global warming is a challenge to animal health, because of increased heat stress, with subsequent induction of immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that act as sentinels of pathogen invasion and tissue damage. Ligation of TLRs results in a signaling cascade and production of inflammatory cytokines, which eradicate pathogens and maintain the health of the host. We hypothesized that the TLR signaling pathway plays a role in immunosuppression in heat-stressed pigs. We explored the changes in the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and the concentration of acute inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-γ in Bama miniature pigs subjected to 21 consecutive days of heat stress, both in vitro and in vivo models. The results showed that heat stress induced the upregulation of cortisol in the plasma of pigs (P<0.05); TLR4 mRNA was elevated, but IL-2 was reduced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, P<0.05). The white blood cell count and the percentage of granulocytes (eosinophilic+basophilic) decreased significantly in heat-stressed pigs (P<0.05). In the in vitro model (PBMC heat shocked for 1 h followed by a 9 h recovery period), TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression also increased, as did the concentration of IL-12 in supernatants. However, IFN-γ was significantly reduced in PBMC culture supernatants (P<0.05). We concluded that a consecutive heat stress period elevated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in PBMC and increased the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. These data indicate that TLR activation and dysregulation of cytokine expression in response to prolonged heat stress may be associated with immunosuppression and increased susceptibility to antigenic challenge in Bama miniature pigs.
The available data provide inconsistent results on the efficacy of small-dose remifentanil attenuating the cardiovascular response to intubation in children. Therefore, this randomized double-blind study was designed to assess the ability of different small doses of remifentanil on the cardiovascular intubation response in children, with the aim of determining the optimal dose of remifentanil for this purpose.
One hundred and twenty-four children aged 3–9 yr were randomized to one of four groups to receive the following in a double-blind manner: normal saline (Group 1), remifentanil 0.75 μg kg−1 (Group 2), remifentanil 1 μg kg−1 (Group 3) and remifentanil 1.25 μg kg−1 (Group 4). Non-invasive blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before anaesthesia induction (baseline value), immediately before intubation (postinduction values), at intubation and at 1 min intervals for 5 min after intubation.
Tracheal intubation caused significant increases in systolic blood pressure and heart rate in Groups 1–3 compared with the baseline values. The maximum percent increases of systolic blood pressure and heart rate were 10% and 26% of the baseline values, respectively, in Group 2; 5% and 14% in Group 3; and 1% and 8% in Group 4 compared with 27% and 37% in Group 1. Except for the Group 3 vs. Group 4 comparison, there were significant differences among the four groups in the maximum percent increases of systolic blood pressure and heart rate.
When used as part of anaesthesia induction with propofol and vecuronium in children, bolus administration of remifentanil resulted in a dose-related attenuation of the cardiovascular intubation response.
The dense granule antigen 4 (GRA4) is known as an immundominant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii and, therefore, is considered as a vaccine candidate. For further evaluation of its vaccine effect, a recombinant plasmid and vaccinia virus, both expressing GRA4, were constructed, and a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime was performed in a mouse model. The mice immunized with the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime showed a high level of specific antibody response against GRA4 and a significantly high level of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production and survived completely against a subsequent challenge infection with a lethal dose of T. gondii. In addition, the formation of cysts was inhibited in the mice vaccinated with the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime. These results demonstrate that the heterologous prime-boost vaccination regime using DNA and a vaccinia virus, both expressing GRA4, could induce both humoral and cellular immune responses and provide effective protection against lethal acute and chronic T. gondii infections in mice.
Murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Neospora caninum tachyzoites were produced to identify the cross-reactive antigens between N. caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Ten mAbs recognizing cross-reactive antigens of both parasites were obtained and tentatively classified into 6 different groups based on their reactivity patterns in an indirect fluorescent antibody test and Western blot analysis. Three mAbs in group 1 recognized antigens located on the surface of parasites with molecular masses ranging from 28 to 76 kDa; one mAb in group 2 recognized antigens located on interior organelles of parasites with a molecular mass of 50 kDa; one mAb in group 3 recognized antigens located on interior organelles of parasites with molecular masses of 35 kDa and 14 kDa; three mAbs in group 4 recognized antigens located on interior organelles with a molecular mass of 64 kDa; one mAb in group 5 recognized antigens located on the surface of parasites with an unknown molecular mass; one mAb in group 6 recognized antigens located on the apical end of parasites with an unknown molecular mass. The mAbs in groups 1, 2, 3, and 5 showed inhibitory effects on the growth of the two parasites in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. A cDNA expression library prepared from N. caninum tachyzoite mRNA was immunoscreened with the mAb panel. Three kinds of proteins, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70), and ribosomal protein 1 (RP1), were identified as cross-reactive antigens recognized by mAbs in groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Some of the proteins could be useful in developing vaccines or drugs for controlling the diseases caused by the two parasites.
Temperature and power dependent photoluminescence measurements were carried out on the multi-layer structure of GeSi dots grown on Si(001) substrate by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The transfer of photon-induced carriers from wetting layers into the dots and the region near the dots was evidenced. Different power dependent behaviors of the photoluminescence peak position were observed for the dots and the wetting layer. Accordingly, type-II and type-I band alignments were proposed for the dots and the wetting layers, respectively. After annealing, the photoluminescence peaks from the dots and the wetting layers showed blueshift due to the atomic intermixing. For the samples annealed at temperature above 850°C for 5min, the band alignment of the dots changes from type-II to type-I.
In high efficiency narrow bandgap (NBG) a-SiGe solar cells, thin buffer layers of unalloyed hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si) are usually used at the interfaces between the a-SiGe intrinsic layer and the doped layers. We investigated the effect of inserting additional a-SiGe interface layers between these a-Si buffer layers and the a-SiGe absorber layer. We found that such additional interface layers increase solar cell VOC and FF sizably, most likely due to the reduction or elimination of the abrupt bandgap discontinuity between the a-SiGe absorber layer and the a-Si buffer layers. With these improved narrow bandgap solar cells incorporated into the fabrication of triple-junction a-Si based solar cells, we obtained triple cells with initial efficiency of 10.6%.
A high-resolution electron microscopy study of β–SiC nanoparticles formed by C+-implantation of single crystal silicon with subsequent annealing has been carried out. The as-implanted sample had a trilayered structure, in which the surface layer, A, and the bottom layer, C, were crystalline but damaged, and the middle layer, B, was amorphous. After annealing this structure, β–SiC particles were formed throughout the trilayered structure but with different forms: a few epitaxial β–SiC nanoparticles in layers A and C, and more random nanoparticles in layer B. The β–SiC nanoparticles, in the size range 2–8 nm, should be responsible for the blue-emitting effect of the silicon-based porous β–SiC.
The path for silicon materials development has been charted. By the year 2010 we will have fabricated integrated circuit chips containing 109 transistors with 40 Å thick gate oxides and 1000 Å minimum feature sizes running at 4 GHz clock speeds. It is conceivable that incremental advances on the current chip architecture will satisfy the required materials and process improvements. The interconnection problem is the only challenge without a proposed solution. The signal propagation delay between devices is now longer than the individual device gate delay. The resistance and capacitance associated with fine line Al interconnects limit speed and increase power consumption and crosstalk. High power line drivers are limited by the reliability constraint of electromigration. There is no current paradigm for 4 GHz, electronic clock distribution. Optical interconnection can remove the electronic transmission bandwidth limit. The main challenge is development of a silicon-compatible, microphotonic technology.
Rare earth doping has provided a means of sharp-line electroluminescence from silicon at λ = 1.54 μm. Silicon's high index of refraction and low absorption in the near infrared yield an ideal optical waveguide. As with microelectronics, the silicon / silicon-dioxide materials system allows high levels of integration and functionality. The applications of silicon materials to light emission (Si:Er), optical waveguides (Si/SiO2), photonic switching (Si/SiO2) and photon detection (SiGe) are reviewed. These developments are discussed in the context of systems applications to communications and computation.