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Local phenomena like trap assisted tunneling and oxide breakdown (BD) in new high-k gate oxides in advanced MOS devices hinder the acquisition of device requirements stated in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM) visualizes these local phenomena by measuring the local tunneling through the dielectric. In the first part of this work we show that the physical composition of surface protrusions, that are produced at sites electrically stressed with C-AFM and that distort the electrical measurements, is oxidized Si. In the second part, we illustrate that C-AFM measurements become more reliable in high vacuum (1e−5torr) as surface (oxidized Si protrusions) and tip damage is reduced. Finally, we illustrate good agreement between conventional macroscopic electrical measurements and nanometer-scale C-AFM measurements on normal and gate – removed high-k capacitors, respectively. Moreover, to illustrate the strength of the local tunneling technique, we show the possibility of locating BD spots on a high-k capacitor.
Junction formation in FinFET-based 3D-devices is a challenging problem as one targets a complete conformal doping of the source/drain regions in order to produce equal gate-profile overlaps (and thus transistor behavior) on all sides of the fins. Due to the lack of predictive modeling for several of the doping strategies explored (plasma immersion, cluster implants, vapor phase deposition, etc…) it becomes difficult to correctly predict the performance of the devices and hence, accurate 3D-doping profile determination is desired. Although several dopant/carrier profiling methods exist with excellent one- or two-dimensional resolution and properties, there is an urgent need to extend these towards a quantitative three-dimensional geometry. In this work, we use scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) with dedicated FinFET test structure to obtain three-dimensional information from successive two-dimensional scanning spreading resistance maps. We also assess the validity of our methodology by comparing various sections along the fins which represent the variability due to the processing and measurement procedure.
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