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It is widely acknowledged that amateur musicians, including aristocrats, gentry and members of the professional classes, were prominent in the musical culture of late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century England and Scotland. For example, the dean of Christ Church, Oxford, Henry Aldrich (1648–1710), the clergyman and recorder player Edward Finch (1663–1738), the botanist James Sherard (1666–1738), the lawyer Sir John Clerk of Penicuik (1676–1755) and the merchant Rowland Sherman all stand out as collectors, copyists or composers. Educational ideals for male elites, which emphasized a broad curriculum, encouraged such individuals not only to compose in a spirit of rational enquiry, but often also to copy significant quantities of music for study purposes or performance.
Music manuscripts copied by amateurs are important records of amateur musical tastes and often give a fascinating window onto their efforts in learning music. However, these manuscripts can also give valuable information on other matters, such as where musical activity took place and the musical circles to which amateurs belonged. The relaxing of censorship laws in the 1690s seems to have paved the way for a rapid expansion in the printing of newspapers, which often contain advertisements for public concerts, music sellers and makers or importers of instruments, while for the late seventeenth century some publishers’ catalogues indicate the availability of printed music beyond the metropolis. For the period before the advent of newspapers, some documentation is also provided by household accounts, diaries, letters, probate inventories and parish registers. Yet the sort of information these provide is piecemeal and limited by what individuals decided to record. Self-compiled music manuscripts, on the other hand, have the potential to tell us more about the musical activities of late seventeenth-century amateurs and their milieu.
Carter and Gibson's study of the Henry Atkinson manuscript in this collec-tion illustrates the potential significance of amateur music manuscripts for the study of musical culture in northern England. This manuscript was copied by the Newcastle coal trader Henry Atkinson (1670–1759), who signed and dated it 1694/95.
This chapter explores core arguments surrounding the political use of bots. It details the brief history of their use online. It accesses the academic literature to highlight key themes on the subject of what some researchers call computational propaganda and others simultaneously call “information operations,” “information warfare,” “influence operations,” “online astroturfing,” “cybertufing,” and many other terms. Computational propaganda, and each of these other concepts to one degree or another, focuses on the ways in which the use of algorithms, automation (most often in the form of political bots), and human curation are used over social media to purposefully distribute misleading information over social media networks.
In this chapter we examine a particular sort of imaginative activity – imagining the impossible, or fantasy. We trace the development of children’s ability to distinguish between fantasy and reality in various contexts – in pretense and imaginative play, in reasoning about mythical beings, and in storybooks and television. Throughout, we explore three groups of factors that influence judgments about whether various entities and events are real or fantastical: (1) characteristics of the child, such as age and fantasy orientation; (2) characteristics of the entity or event, such as whether it is self-generated or a product of culture; and (3) features of the environment, such as the context in which the entity or event is encountered. We also explore the tools children use to make these distinctions, and consider effects of both engaging with fantasy and making the fantasy-reality distinction on cognitive development more broadly. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
While recent research points to the potential benefits of clinical intervention before the first episode of psychosis, the logistical feasibility of this is unclear.
To assess the feasibility of providing a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in an inner city area where engagement with mental health services is generally poor.
Following a period of liaison with local agencies to promote the service, referrals were assessed and managed in a primary care setting. Activity of the service was audited over 30 months.
People with prodromal symptoms were referred by a range of community agencies and seen at their local primary care physician practice. Over 30 months, 180 clients were referred; 58 (32.2%) met criteria for an at risk mental state, most of whom (67.2%) had attenuated psychotic symptoms. Almost 30% were excluded due to current or previous psychotic illness, of which two-thirds were in the first episode of psychosis. The socio-demographic composition of the 'at risk' group reflected that of the local population, with an over-representation of clients from an ethnic minority. Over 90% of suitable clients remained engaged with the service after 1 year.
It is feasible to provide a clinical service for people with prodromal symptoms in a deprived inner city area with a large ethnic minority population.
Executive and mnemonic impairments have been well documented in the high-risk states for development of psychosis and have been pinpointed as a possible core neuropsychological dysfunction. However, their neurofunctional correlates are still not clear.
fMRI was used in 17 patients at risk for developing psychosis (ARMS, “at risk mental state”), 10 patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) and 15 age-matched healthy comparison subjects to examine neural responses to increasing difficulty of mnemonic engagement in an object–location paired associate memory task. Groups were matched in terms of age, IQ, gender, and psychopathology ratings. Accuracy and reaction time were recorded during the scan.
As the mnemonic load increased, response latency increased and response accuracy decreased in an approximately linear fashion. No main effect for group was observed. However, a trend towards decreased accuracy in FEP subjects, as compared with controls, was evident. As the task difficulty increased, increased brain activity was observed in the medial frontal cortex and in the medial posterior parietal cortex. Between-groups differences in activation were observed in a cluster spanning the MFG, SFG and SMA and in the right precuneus. However, these neurofunctional abnormalities were more evident in the most demanding level of the task than in the easy level, with the ARMS groups showing less activation than controls and higher activation than FEP.
Abnormal neural activity in medial frontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex during paired associate learning task may represent a neurofunctional substrates of vulnerability to psychosis.
Previous DTI studies in schizophrenia have all found decreased white matter integrity in the patients, though the location of these differences has varied. This may be due to the use of region-of-interest methods and underpowered studies. We used voxel-based DTI to examine a much larger sample of patients with schizophrenia and controls.
Seventy-six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia and 76 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, IQ, and education were scanned with an optimized DTI sequence at 1.5T. FA maps were co-registered using SPM2 and group differences calculated using non-parametric XBAM_v3.4. Mean FA was extracted from each significant cluster and correlated with illness duration in the patients. Cluster FA was compared between the 15 patients with a few days exposure to antipsychotics and 30 matched patients who had been treated for over a year.
At thresholds of <1 false positive (voxel p<0.01, cluster p<0.0005), there were widespread reductions in FA in the patient group. These areas included bilateral cingulum, superior & inferior longitudinal fasciculus, left uncinate and the genu of the corpus callosum. There were no areas of increased FA in patients relative to controls. In our secondary analyses, there were no significant correlations between the mean FA extracted from any of these clusters and duration of illness, and no significant differences between the briefly medicated and chronically medicated groups.
Schizophrenia is associated with FA reductions distributed widely in white matter, but these differences do not correlate with duration of illness, and do not segregate with medication.
People with ‘prodromal’ symptoms have a very high risk of developing psychosis. We used functional MRI to examine the neurocognitive basis of this vulnerability.
Cross-sectional comparison of subjects with an ARMS (n=17), first episode schizophreniform psychosis (n=10) and healthy volunteers (n=15). Subjects were studied using functional MRI while they performed an overt verbal fluency task, a random movement generation paradigm and an N-Back working memory task.
During an N-Back task the ARMS group engaged inferior frontal and posterior parietal cortex less than controls but more than the first episode group. During a motor generation task, the ARMS group showed less activation in the left inferior parietal cortex than controls, but greater activation than the first episode group. During verbal fluency using ‘Easy’ letters, the ARMS group demonstrated intermediate activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, with first episode groups showing least, and controls most, activation. When processing ‘Hard’ letters, differential activation was evident in two left inferior frontal regions. In its dorsolateral portion, the ARMS group showed less activation than controls but more than the first episode group, while in the opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus / anterior insula activation was greatest in the first episode group, weakest in controls and intermediate in the ARMS group.
The ARMS is associated with abnormalities of regional brain function that are qualitatively similar to those in patients who have just developed psychosis but less severe.
Inhibitory dysfunction is the key behavioural and cognitive phenotype of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and of obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD). Both disorders show deficits in tasks of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility as well as fronto-striatal brain dysfunctions during task performance. The goal of this research was to investigate differences and commonalities in functional neural networks mediating inhibitory control between adolescents with ADHD and those with OCD to identify disorder-specific neurofunctional biomarkers.
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activation of 18/12 boys (Stop/Switch task) with clinical ADHD, 10 boys with clinical OCD and 20 healthy comparison boys during a tracking Stop task measuring motor response inhibition and its failure and a switching task measuring cognitive flexibility. Non-parametric permutation analyses were used for fMRI analysis (XBAM). Functional connectivity analyses investigating group differences in fronto-striatal connections will be presented at the conference.
Both patient groups shared brain dysfunction compared to controls in right orbitofrontal, left dorsolateral (Stop task) and left inferior prefrontal cortices (Switch task). Right inferior prefrontal under-activation, however, was specific to ADHD during both tasks. Under-activation in left caudate and anterior cingulate was also specific to ADHD during the Switch task.
Patients with ADHD appear to have both common and distinct dysfunctions during inhibitory control compared to OCD patients. The most consistent fMRI finding in ADHD of a dysfunction in right inferior prefrontal cortex during inhibitory control appears to be disorder-specific when compared to OCD, and may be a specific neurofunctional biomarker of ADHD.
There is increasing evidence that changes in connections linking brain regions, as well as grey matter volumetric abnormalities are important in schizophrenia. The extent to which these are related to being at risk of psychosis as opposed to having a psychotic disorder is unclear. We will review the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings which inform us about white matter integrity and organization, and relate it to our own work which compares grey matter volumes and white matter integrity in people at high risk of psychosis, patients with first episode psychosis, and healthy volunteers. We will also discuss the relationship of these findings to clinical symptoms and outcome.
30 subjects with an ‘at risk mental state’ (PACE criteria), 15 first psychotic episode patients and 30 controls were studied using an SPGR sequence and DTI.
Both the volumetric and DTI datasets were analysed using voxel based techniques in standard space. There were frontal and temporal grey matter reductions in the first episode group and more modest temporo-parietal volume reductions in the ‘at risk’ group. The first episode group had reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally, left anterior corpus callosal and right superior fronto-occiptal tracts relative to controls, with qualitatively similar but less severe reductions in the ‘at risk’ subjects.
Abnormalities in the frontal and temporal grey matter and the tracts connecting them were evident in patients with first episode schizophrenia, with similar but less marked abnormalities in subjects with an ‘at risk’ mental state.
The career of William Babell (1688–1723), an English composer of German birth, has recently been reassessed by me following identification of a manuscript source in Bergamo, which appears to be a collection of his harpsichord music. The manuscript shows he was an important keyboard composer active in Britain immediately prior to the publication of Handel's Suites de Pieces pour le Clavecin (1720), and it has provided insights into his working methods. The major items – eleven substantial toccatas mostly in prelude–fugue form together with two suites – are replete with the cadenza-like passagework familiar from his arrangements of arias from operas produced at the Haymarket Theatre between 1706 and 1714, which were published in three collections in his lifetime (in 1709, 1711 and 1717). They also reveal the range of influences on his keyboard style, illustrating how he adapted material from music by French, Italian, German and English composers. Though the source is not an autograph, it was copied towards the end of Babell's life by an individual close to him, to judge from the large number of pencil corrections that appear to be the composer's own. The manuscript therefore has biographical implications, suggesting that there was a composer-supervised project to bring together his keyboard music, perhaps in order to prepare some of it for publication, which never saw completion.
In addition to human, animal, and artificial intelligence, there is another important kind of intelligence on our planet: the collective intelligence of groups of individuals acting collectively in ways that seem intelligent. This chapter analyzes collective intelligence in terms of what tasks are being done, who is doing them, and why and how the tasks are being done. For instance, the chapter shows how groups can have both specialized and general collective intelligence and how the collective intelligence of a group can depend on the task-relevant abilities of group members, their interpersonal abilities, their diversity, and their intrinsic or extrinsic motivations. The chapter also analyzes the factors involved in group-level processes such as deciding, creating, remembering, sensing, learning, and coordinating. Just as studying the neural basis for intelligence links neural processes to cognitive psychology, studying collective intelligence links cognitive psychology to higher-level social, organizational, and economic processes.
This article examines the sylvan political ecology of late colonial New Spain and the colonial government's attempt to address deforestation through the Council on Forests, the first body in the kingdom's history dedicated to the conservation of natural resources. Drawing primarily from the corpus of documents produced by and remitted to the council, this article gives a trans-regional perspective on colonial forest use and argues that the Spanish crown's usurpation of indigenous communities’ eminent domain over forests was the first step in a process that over centuries progressively severed the cultural ties that bound communities and forests by converting common-pool resources into open-access commons. The catastrophic mortality of the Spanish invasion was the second step, which rendered conservation measures seemingly unnecessary among both woodcutters and officials. But it was during the eighteenth century that older Habsburg notions of protectionism intersected with economic and political changes associated with Bourbon rule to further compel this cultural severance. While previous works have studied the ecological impacts of mining, ranching, and flood control, this article moves beyond the study of a single industry to suggest some of the larger ecological consequences of Spanish colonialism.
Aberrant sensitivity to social reward may be an important contributor to abnormal social behavior that is a core feature of schizophrenia. The neuropeptide oxytocin impacts the salience of social information across species, but its effect on social reward in schizophrenia is unknown.
We used a competitive economic game and computational modeling to examine behavioral dynamics and oxytocin effects on sensitivity to social reward among 39 men with schizophrenia and 54 matched healthy controls. In a randomized, double-blind study, participants received one dose of oxytocin (40 IU) or placebo and completed a 35-trial Auction Game that quantifies preferences for monetary v. social reward. We analyzed bidding behavior using multilevel linear mixed models and reinforcement learning models.
Bidding was motivated by preferences for both monetary and social reward in both groups, but bidding dynamics differed: patients initially overbid less compared to controls, and across trials, controls decreased their bids while patients did not. Oxytocin administration was associated with sustained overbidding across trials, particularly in patients. This drug effect was driven by a stronger preference for winning the auction, regardless of monetary consequences. Learning rate and response variability did not differ between groups or drug condition, suggesting that differences in bidding derive primarily from differences in the subjective value of social rewards.
Our findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with diminished motivation for social reward that may be increased by oxytocin administration.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to offspring's externalizing problems. It has been argued that socio-demographic factors (e.g. maternal age and education), co-occurring environmental risk factors, or pleiotropic genetic effects may account for the association between MSDP and later outcomes. This study provides a comprehensive investigation of the association between MSDP and a single harmonized component of externalizing: aggressive behaviour, measured throughout childhood and adolescence.
Data came from four prospective twin cohorts – Twins Early Development Study, Netherlands Twin Register, Childhood and Adolescent Twin Study of Sweden, and FinnTwin12 study – who collaborate in the EU-ACTION consortium. Data from 30 708 unrelated individuals were analysed. Based on item level data, a harmonized measure of aggression was created at ages 9–10; 12; 14–15 and 16–18.
MSDP predicted aggression in childhood and adolescence. A meta-analysis across the four samples found the independent effect of MSDP to be 0.4% (r = 0.066), this remained consistent when analyses were performed separately by sex. All other perinatal factors combined explained 1.1% of the variance in aggression across all ages and samples (r = 0.112). Paternal smoking and aggressive parenting strategies did not account for the MSDP-aggression association, consistent with the hypothesis of a small direct link between MSDP and aggression.
Perinatal factors, including MSDP, account for a small portion of the variance in aggression in childhood and adolescence. Later experiences may play a greater role in shaping adolescents’ aggressive behaviour.
Over the last decade, DNA origami has matured into one of the most powerful bottom-up nanofabrication techniques. It enables both the fabrication of nanoparticles of arbitrary two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes, and the spatial organization of any DNA-linked nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, or proteins at ∼5-nm resolution. While widely used within the DNA nanotechnology community, DNA origami has yet to be broadly applied in materials science and device physics, which now rely primarily on top-down nanofabrication. In this article, we first introduce DNA origami as a modular breadboard for nanomaterials and then present a brief survey of recent results demonstrating the unique capabilities created by the combination of DNA origami with existing top-down techniques. Emphasis is given to the open challenges associated with each method, and we suggest potential next steps drawing inspiration from recent work in materials science and device physics. Finally, we discuss some near-term applications made possible by the marriage of DNA origami and top-down nanofabrication.
For more than 70 years, The Americas, a publication of the Academy of American Franciscan History, has been a leading forum for scholars studying the history of Spanish America's colonial missions. As the articles collected from the journal for this special issue show, the general trend has been to move beyond the hagiographic treatment of missionaries and towards a more complex understanding of the historical roles played by the colonial missions in rural life.
Pharyngoesophageal diverticula have many subtypes, with Zenker's diverticulum being the most common. First described in 1983, a Killian–Jamieson diverticulum is an outpouching in the anterolateral wall at the pharyngoesophageal junction. This is located inferiorly to the cricopharyngeus muscle, unlike Zenker's diverticula which occur superiorly. Killian–Jamieson diverticula are rare and are commonly misdiagnosed as Zenker's diverticula. Less than 30 reports of Killian–Jamieson diverticula have been described in the literature.
A 69-year-old man presented with a 2-year symptomatic history, and was found to have simultaneous Zenker's diverticulum and Killian–Jamieson diverticulum. He was treated successfully with open surgical excision of both pouches.
Zenker's diverticulum and Killian–Jamieson diverticulum are diagnosed using radiological studies and endoscopy. Their differentiation is important, as surgical management differs. This paper reviews the literature on Killian–Jamieson diverticula and the management options available.
Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia. Although two small studies have investigated oxytocin's effects on ratings of facial trustworthiness in schizophrenia, its effects on facial expressivity have not been investigated in any population.
We investigated the effects of oxytocin on facial emotional expressivity while participants performed a facial trustworthiness rating task in 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 age-matched healthy controls using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Participants rated the trustworthiness of presented faces interspersed with emotionally evocative photographs while being video-recorded. Participants’ facial expressivity in these videos was quantified by blind raters using a well-validated manualized approach (i.e. the Facial Expression Coding System; FACES).
While oxytocin administration did not affect ratings of facial trustworthiness, it significantly increased facial expressivity in individuals with schizophrenia (Z = −2.33, p = 0.02) and at trend level in healthy controls (Z = −1.87, p = 0.06).
These results demonstrate that oxytocin administration can increase facial expressivity in response to emotional stimuli and suggest that oxytocin may have the potential to serve as a treatment for blunted facial affect in schizophrenia.