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Mood disorders require consistent management of symptoms to prevent recurrences of mood episodes. Circadian rhythm (CR) disruption is a key symptom of mood disorders to be proactively managed to prevent mood episode recurrences. This study aims to predict impending mood episodes recurrences using digital phenotypes related to CR obtained from wearable devices and smartphones.
The study is a multicenter, nationwide, prospective, observational study with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder I, and bipolar II disorder. A total of 495 patients were recruited from eight hospitals in South Korea. Patients were followed up for an average of 279.7 days (a total sample of 75 506 days) with wearable devices and smartphones and with clinical interviews conducted every 3 months. Algorithms predicting impending mood episodes were developed with machine learning. Algorithm-predicted mood episodes were then compared to those identified through face-to-face clinical interviews incorporating ecological momentary assessments of daily mood and energy.
Two hundred seventy mood episodes recurred in 135 subjects during the follow-up period. The prediction accuracies for impending major depressive episodes, manic episodes, and hypomanic episodes for the next 3 days were 90.1, 92.6, and 93.0%, with the area under the curve values of 0.937, 0.957, and 0.963, respectively.
We predicted the onset of mood episode recurrences exclusively using digital phenotypes. Specifically, phenotypes indicating CR misalignment contributed the most to the prediction of episodes recurrences. Our findings suggest that monitoring of CR using digital devices can be useful in preventing and treating mood disorders.
Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable.
Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C).
Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = −0.303), and gender (standardized β = −0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores’ total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years), and gender.
Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.
Joint reliability of immersion Ag with two different solders, Sn–37Pb and Sn–3.5Ag, were evaluated. We first compared the interfacial reactions of the two solder joints and also successfully revealed a connection between the interfacial reaction behavior and mechanical reliability. The Sn–Pb solder produced a Pb-rich phase along the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate during aging. In contrast, the Sn–Ag solder exhibits an off-eutectic reaction to produce the eutectic phase and Ag3Sn precipitate. The shear test results show that the Sn–Pb solder joint fractured along the interface showing brittle failure indications possibly due to the brittle Pb-rich layer. In contrast, the failure of Sn–Ag solder joint was only through the bulk solder, providing evidence that the interface is mechanically reliable. The results from this study confirm that the immersion Ag/Sn–Ag solder joint is mechanically robust, and thus the combination is a viable option for a Pb-free package system.
The YSTAR program is a general sky survey looking for variability. The main equipments are three 0.5-m telescopes. These telescopes have fast F/2 optics covering nearly 3.5 square degree field onto a 2K CCD. They also have very fast slew capability, which exceeds 10 degrees per second. These two factors make them most suitable for rapid target acquisition and wide-field surveys of various kinds. Our primary objective is to identify and monitor variable stars down to 18th R-magnitude, and our observing mode allows the same data set to be also useful in identifying asteroids. Our first telescope has just begun regular automated operation, and the second telescope will be installed in South Africa within this year to provide coverage of the southern sky.
The formation of BaCeO3 and its effects on microstructure were studied in sintered/melt-textured Y-Ba-Cu-O oxides containing 5 wt. % CeO2 and various amounts of Y2Ba1Cu1O5. The added CeO2 was converted to fine particles of BaCeO3 near 930 °C, which is the conventional sintering temperature for Y-Ba–Cu-O. Y2Ba1Cu1O5 and CuO are formed as by-products of the reaction between CeO2 and Y1Ba2Cu3O7−y phase. The CeO2 addition reduced the particle size of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 which was trapped in the Y1Ba2Cu3O7−y matrix after the melt-texture growth. During the peritectic decomposition stage of Y1Ba2Cu3O7−y phase into Y2Ba1Cu1O5 and liquid phase, the morphology of the decomposed Y2Ba1Cu1O5 was changed from a blocky shape in the undoped sample to an acicular shape of high anisotropy in the CeO2-added sample. The formation of the highly anisotropic Y2Ba1Cu1O5 particles appears to be responsible for the refinement of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 particle after the melt-texture processing.
In order to investigate microstructural variation by 2-1-1 addition in partially melted Y–Ba–Cu–O, a specimen resulting from 2-1-1 added to 1-2-3 was heat-treated through the peritectic temperature. Microstructure was observed on the directionally solidified region near the interface of the two samples. The 2-1-1 addition results in a homogeneous microstructure where no remnant liquid phase is present. It reduced the 1-2-3 plate thickness, as well as suppressed the formation of microcracks due to the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic phase transition or the thermal contraction during cooling from the peritectic temperature. The formation of microcracks induced by the phase transition seems to be closely related to the process of oxygen diffusion into a sample. We discuss the formation of microcracks in terms of the oxygen diffusion along the plate boundaries and of the thickness of 1-2-3 plates. The decrease in the plate thickness and the fine dispersion of 2-1-1 particles contribute suppression of the formation of microcracks and their propagation.
The CeO2-added Y–Ba–Cu–O oxides were prepared by two different processes, the conventional solid-state reaction process and the partial melt process using powders, to examine the effect of the dopant on microstructure, microhardness, and superconductivity. In the solid-state reacted sample, most of the added CeO2 was converted to a form of BaCeO3, but some might enter into the 1-2-3 phase, resulting in the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition that accompanied the disappearance of twin structure in 1-2-3 grains. In the partially melted sample, however, the phase change was not observed up to 5 wt. % of CeO2. All the added CeO2 in these samples was consumed to form only BaCeO3 which was finely dispersed in large 1-2-3 grains during the peritectic reaction stage. The zero resistance temperature (Tc) of the solid-state reacted sample gradually decreased with increasing CeO2 content due to the phase change and the formation of BaCeO3, whereas the Tc of the partially melted sample was nearly constant regardless of CeO2 content up to 5 wt. %, owing to the separation of the second phase from the 1-2-3 superconducting phase. Microhardness of the partially melted sample increased with increasing CeO2 content. The strengthening effect appears to come from the composite system where the fine BaCeO3 particles are dispersed in a 1-2-3 matrix.
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