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We present the first general metric for attractor overlap (MAO) facilitating an unsupervised comparison of flow data sets. The starting point is two or more attractors, i.e. ensembles of states representing different operating conditions. The proposed metric generalizes the standard Hilbert-space distance between two snapshot-to-snapshot ensembles of two attractors. A reduced-order analysis for big data and many attractors is enabled by coarse graining the snapshots into representative clusters with corresponding centroids and population probabilities. For a large number of attractors, MAO is augmented by proximity maps for the snapshots, the centroids and the attractors, giving scientifically interpretable visual access to the closeness of the states. The coherent structures belonging to the overlap and disjoint states between these attractors are distilled by a few representative centroids. We employ MAO for two quite different actuated flow configurations: a two-dimensional wake with vortices in a narrow frequency range and three-dimensional wall turbulence with a broadband spectrum. In the first application, seven control laws are applied to the fluidic pinball, i.e. the two-dimensional flow around three circular cylinders whose centres form an equilateral triangle pointing in the upstream direction. These seven operating conditions comprise unforced shedding, boat tailing, base bleed, high- and low-frequency forcing as well as two opposing Magnus effects. In the second example, MAO is applied to three-dimensional simulation data from an open-loop drag reduction study of a turbulent boundary layer. The actuation mechanisms of 38 spanwise travelling transversal surface waves are investigated. MAO compares and classifies these actuated flows in agreement with physical intuition. For instance, the first feature coordinate of the attractor proximity map correlates with drag for the fluidic pinball and for the turbulent boundary layer. MAO has a large spectrum of potential applications ranging from a quantitative comparison between numerical simulations and experimental particle-image velocimetry data to the analysis of simulations representing a myriad of different operating conditions.
The past decade has presented the development community with some of its most demanding reconstruction challenges since the aftermath of World War II. The World Bank and other development partners have been involved in post-disaster reconstruction in response to the devastation resulting from the tsunami in Indonesia (Aceh), Sri Lanka, the Maldives and India, and also from the earthquakes in Pakistan and Indonesia (Yogyakarta/Central Java). The World Bank and its partners have also supported post-conflict reconstruction following peace agreements in Haiti and Sudan. All these activities came in addition to other large-scale reconstruction programmes in Afghanistan, East Timor and several other countries, most recently Lebanon.
In most cases, such disasters greatly exceed available domestic resources. Consequently, international donor agencies are frequently called upon to finance reconstruction in post-disaster and post-conflict countries. In the case of large-scale natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, private contributions were also an important part of the reconstruction programme.
Spending these significant financial resources well has been a key concern in all these reconstruction episodes. Appropriate arrangements for Public Financial Management and Accountability (PFMA) are increasingly viewed as crucial ingredients to ensure that reconstruction proceeds with integrity in a timely and effective manner, while also adequately managing fiduciary risk.
The international community has increasingly emphasized the performance of Public Financial Management (PFM) systems to enhance the use of domestic resources in developing countries and to underpin the scaling up and effectiveness of aid. The strengthening of country financial management systems and donor harmonization have both emerged as key priorities in enhancing aid effectiveness, including through budget support. The recent Public Expenditure & Financial Management Accountability (PEFA) performance indicator framework has focused on benchmarking outcomes as a way of promoting capacity development in the PFMA area.
This chapter focuses on special considerations for strengthening PFM arrangements in post-disaster and post-conflict reconstruction environments that have yet to receive systematic attention. This chapter's objective is twofold: (1) to present key features of PFM in post-disaster environments, and (2) to analyse the similarities and differences between PFM in post-disaster and post-conflict environments.
The ERMIN model is a new implement developed to enable estimation of the radiological
consequences in inhabited areas of accidents in nuclear installations. Similarly, AGRICP
is a model developed to enable estimation of the radiological consequences of
contamination of agricultural production areas. This paper provides a short overview of
the background of the two models and describes the features enabled through their
implementation in the ARGOS decision support system. The integration allows calculation of
both dose rates and doses in particular areas, and can be used to evaluate the
effectiveness and costs of countermeasure strategies.
Within the EURANOS project data assimilation (DA) approaches have been successfully
applied in two areas to improve the predictive power of simulation models used in the
RODOS and ARGOS decision support systems. For the areas of atmospheric dispersion
modelling and of modelling the fate of radio-nuclides in urban areas the results of
demonstration exercises are presented here. With the data assimilation module of the
RIMPUFF dispersion code, predictions of the gamma dose rate are corrected with simulated
readings of fixed detector stations. Using the DA capabilities of the IAMM package for
mapping the radioactive contamination in inhabited areas, predictions of a large scale
deposition model have been combined with hypothetical measurements on a local scale. In
both examples the accuracy of the model predictions has been improved and the
uncertainties have been reduced.
In the automotive industry, the compilation and maintenance of
correct product configuration data is a complex task. Our work shows
how formal methods can be applied to the validation of such business
critical data. Our consistency support tool BIS works on an existing
database of Boolean constraints expressing valid configurations and
their transformation into manufacturable products. Using a specially
modified satisfiability checker with an explanation component, BIS can
detect inconsistencies in the constraints set and thus help increase
the quality of the product data. BIS also supports manufacturing
decisions by calculating the implications of product or production
environment changes on the set of required parts. In this paper, we
give a comprehensive account of BIS: the formalization of the business
processes underlying its construction, the modifications of
satisfiability-checking technology we found necessary in this context,
and the software technology used to package the product as a
client–server information system.
Aluminum nitride (2H-AlN) films were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si(001). By conventional (CTEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations the influence of the off-axis angle of the substrate surface on the film structure was studied. Three types of Si(001) substrates were used: on-axis, ∼1°, and ∼5° off-axis. The 2H-AlN layer on an exact oriented Si(001) substrates consists of 3 AlN film domains: two main film domains, AlNI and AlNII, and a small domain AlNIII at substrate surface defects. Their c-axis orientations are parallel to the c-axis of the substrate: AlNI,II,III ∥ Si. The a-axes of AlNI and AlNII rotated by 30° to each other: [11 20]AlNII∥[01 10]AlNII ∥ [1 1 0]Si. The orientation of AlNIII is [01 10]AlNIII ∥ Si. In 2H-AlN films grown on off-axis Si(001) substrates (∼1° and ∼5°) the ratio between the AlNI and AlNII film domains changes dramatically as far as a single domain film structure consisting of mainly AlNI is reached. The AlN c-axes of all domains on the off-axis substrates are not parallel to the Si c-axis but tilted by the off-axis angle of the Si(001) substrate (∼1° respectively ∼5°), i.e. AlN is parallel to the Si(001) substrate surface orientation. Determination of the AlNI domain / Si(001) interface structure by HRTEM illuminates the origin of the preference of this domain in the 2H-AlN film by using off-axis Si(001) substrates. On the on-axis substrate a regular array of misfit dislocations causes a 5:4 fit between the (1 1 00)AlN and ( 1 1 0)Si lattice planes. The off-axis Si(001) leads to a rotation of the AlN lattice in respect of the Si lattice. An array of misfit dislocations with a 4:3 fit between (1 1 01)AlN and ( 1 1 1)Si lattice planes decreases the residual lattice misfit from -1.6% to -0.8%.
Picosecond time resolved photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements are performed to investigate the influence of high intensity illumination on the properties of Fullerene crystals. A highly nonlinear dependence of both the photoluminescence characteristics and the photoconductive response of the fullerenes is seen and temperature dependent measurements indicate that the nonlinear processes are associated with an insulatormetal-like phase transition in the material, and thus that the electronic properties of the excited state are dramatically altered at high excited state densities. The observed behaviour is compared and contrasted to the changes in the optical properties upon photochemical modification of the pristine material via Raman spectroscopy. Application of a simple phenomenological model to calculate the contribution of intermolecular exchange and correlation energies in the excited state supports the proposal that the observed phenomena originate from a Mott-like phase transition. A further manifestation of this behaviour is the emergence of a broadband electroluminescent emission above a critical injection current density.
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