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Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic. Psychotic symptoms are relatively rare in reported adverse events. Here, we report a patient who presented with tramadol-related psychotic symptoms.
A 59-year-old female had underlying bipolar I disorder and received lithium treatment with stable affective status. 1 month before hospitalisation, she had been taking tramadol HCl/acetaminophen for joint pain. She then developed obvious persecutory delusion. However, her clinical picture did not meet the criteria of any mood episode. After treatment of risperidone in addition to lithium, she was discharged without any psychotic symptom. She remained euthymic without any psychotic symptom on monotherapy of lithium (300 mg) three tablets once daily.
Tramadol HCl is commonly prescribed in clinical practice and psychotic symptoms related to it are uncommon. We should be careful about the rare but important adverse events while prescribing tramadol HCl.