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The relationship between wisdom and fluid intelligence (Gf) is poorly understood, particularly in older adults. We empirically tested the magnitude of the correlation between wisdom and Gf to help determine the extent of overlap between these two constructs.
Cross-sectional study with preregistered hypotheses and well-powered analytic plan (https://osf.io/h3pjx).
Memory and Aging Center at the University of California San Francisco, located in the USA.
Wisdom was quantified using a well-validated self-report-based scale (San Diego Wisdom Scale or SD-WISE). Gf was assessed via composite measures of processing speed (Gf-PS) and executive functioning (Gf-EF). The relationships of SD-WISE scores to Gf-PS and Gf-EF were tested in bivariate correlational analyses and multiple regression models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, and education). Exploratory analyses evaluated the relationships between SD-WISE and age, episodic memory performance, and dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortical volumes on magnetic resonance imaging.
Wisdom showed a small, positive association with Gf-EF (r = 0.181 [95% CI 0.016, 0.336], p = .031), which was reduced to nonsignificance upon controlling for demographics, and no association with Gf-PS (r = 0.019 [95% CI −0.179, 0.216], p = .854). Wisdom demonstrated a small, negative correlation with age (r = −0.197 [95% CI −0.351, −0.033], p = .019), but was not significantly related to episodic memory or prefrontal volumes.
Our findings indicate that most of the variance in wisdom (>95%) is unaccounted for by Gf. The independence of wisdom from cognitive functions that reliably show age-associated declines suggests that it may hold unique potential to bolster decision-making, interpersonal functioning, and other everyday activities in older adults.
This chapter provides a practical guide for clinicians evaluating patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections. Emphasis is placed on common presentations, differential diagnosis, confirmatory testing, initial treatment options, and monitoring response to therapy. Acute bacterial meningitis is characterized by headache, fever, and neck stiffness. Nausea, vomiting, photophobia and seizures are common. Aseptic meningitis is a nonspecific term applied historically to patients with meningitis and negative blood and cerebrospinal cultures. Encephalitis involves brain parenchyma; fever and altered mentation are the predominant presenting symptoms. Brain abscesses are space-occupying CNS lesions which, depending on size and location, may cause focal neurological deficits. Epidural abscess is a neurological emergency. Neurological complications of HIV infection are common and have evolved with introduction of newer therapies. Patients are now living longer with HIV, and CNS pathogens have largely been replaced by HIV-associated cognitive impairment and peripheral neuropathy.
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