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As practitioners of a historical science, paleontologists and geoscientists are well versed in the idea that the ability to understand and to anticipate the future relies upon our collective knowledge of the past. Despite this understanding, the fundamental role that the history of paleontology and the geosciences plays in shaping the structure and culture of our disciplines is seldom recognized and therefore not acted upon sufficiently. Here, we present a brief review of the history of paleontology and geology in Western countries, with a particular focus on North America since the 1800s. Western paleontology and geology are intertwined with systematic practices of exclusion, oppression, and erasure that arose from their direct participation in the extraction of geological and biological resources at the expense of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). Our collective failure to acknowledge this history hinders our ability to address these issues meaningfully and systemically in present-day educational, academic, and professional settings. By discussing these issues and suggesting some ways forward, we intend to promote a deeper reflection upon our collective history and a broader conversation surrounding racism, colonialism, and exclusion within our scientific communities. Ultimately, it is necessary to listen to members of the communities most impacted by these issues to create actionable steps forward while holding ourselves accountable for the past.
The influence of higher processing temperatures on the formation reaction of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin films using a three step reactive annealing process and on the device performance has been investigated. High process temperatures generally lead to the formation of larger grains, decrease the amount of void formation and their distribution at the back Mo/Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 interface, and lead to a much faster formation reaction that shortens the overall reaction process. However, high temperature processing also leads to a decrease in device performance. A loss in open circuit voltage and fill factor could be attributed to enhanced interface recombination processes for the samples fabricated at higher process temperatures, which itself may be caused by a lack of Na and subsequent poor passivation of interface defect states. The lack of Na resulted in a decrease in free charge carrier concentration by two orders of magnitude.
We investigated 4 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outbreaks at hemodialysis units to identify practices associated with transmission. Apparent failures to follow recommended infection control precautions resulted in patient-to-patient HCV transmission, through cross-contamination of the environment or intravenous medication vials. Fastidious attention to aseptic technique and infection control precautions are essential to prevent HCV transmission.
We report on a direct epitaxial growth approach for the heterogeneous integration of high speed III-V devices with Si CMOS logic on a common Si substrate. InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBTs) structures were successfully grown on patterned Si-on-Lattice-Engineered-Substrate (SOLES) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. DC and RF performance similar to those grown on lattice-matched InP were achieved in growth windows as small as 15×15μm2. This truly planar approach allows tight device placement with InP-HBTs to Si CMOS transistors separation as small as 2.5 μm, and the use of standard wafer level multilayer interconnects. A high speed, low power dissipation differential amplifier was designed and fabricated, demonstrating the feasibility of using this approach for high performance mixed signal circuits such as ADCs and DACs.
The Working Group FITS (WG-FITS) is the international control authority for the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) data format. The WG-FITS was formed in 1988 by a formal resolution of the IAU XX General Assembly in Baltimore (MD, USA), 1988, to maintain the existing FITS standards and to approve future extensions to FITS.
The business meeting began with a brief review of the current rules and procedures of the WG, which are documented on the WG web page. Four regional FITS committees have been established by the WG, covering North American, Europe, Japan, and Australian/New Zealand, to provide advice to the WG on pending proposals. While it is recognized that this committee structure might need to be revised to provide representation to other regions, the current system is working well, and there were no motions to make any changes at this time.