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From the safety inside vehicles, Knowsley Safari offers visitors a close-up encounter with captive olive baboons. As exiting vehicles may be contaminated with baboon stool, a comprehensive coprological inspection was conducted to address public health concerns. Baboon stools were obtained from vehicles, and sleeping areas, inclusive of video analysis of baboon–vehicle interactions. A purposely selected 4-day sampling period enabled comparative inspections of 2662 vehicles, with a total of 669 baboon stools examined (371 from vehicles and 298 from sleeping areas). As informed by our pilot study, front-line diagnostic methods were: QUIK-CHEK rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (Giardia and Cryptosporidium), Kato–Katz coproscopy (Trichuris) and charcoal culture (Strongyloides). Some 13.9% of vehicles were contaminated with baboon stool. Prevalence of giardiasis was 37.4% while cryptosporidiosis was <0.01%, however, an absence of faecal cysts by quality control coproscopy, alongside lower than the expected levels of Giardia-specific DNA, judged RDT results as misleading, grossly overestimating prevalence. Prevalence of trichuriasis was 48.0% and strongyloidiasis was 13.7%, a first report of Strongyloides fuelleborni in UK. We advise regular blanket administration(s) of anthelminthics to the colony, exploring pour-on formulations, thereafter, smaller-scale indicator surveys would be adequate.
Residents of rural areas are underrepresented in research. The aim of this narrative review was to explore studies describing the effectiveness of community engagement strategies with rural communities to promote participant recruitment and participation in clinical research. Following PRISMA guidelines, this narrative review was conducted in June 2020. Our search strategy was built around keywords that included community-engaged research, rural community, and recruitment strategies into clinical research. Content-related descriptive statistics were summarized. The selected articles were distributed into categories of levels of community engagement: inform, consult, involve, collaborate, or co-lead. The search resulted in 2,473 identified studies of which forty-eight met inclusion criteria. Of these, 47.1% were randomized controlled trials. The most common levels of engagement were consultation (n = 24 studies) and collaboration (n = 15), while very few focused on informing (n = 2) and co-leadership (n = 2). Strategies, limitations, and findings are discussed for each level of community engagement. This narrative addressed a gap in knowledge regarding participant recruitment in rural communities in relation to assistance from community members. Community engagement contributed to the success of the research, especially in recruitment, participation, and building trust and partnership.
Many male prisoners have significant mental health problems, including anxiety and depression. High proportions struggle with homelessness and substance misuse.
This study aims to evaluate whether the Engager intervention improves mental health outcomes following release.
The design is a parallel randomised superiority trial that was conducted in the North West and South West of England (ISRCTN11707331). Men serving a prison sentence of 2 years or less were individually allocated 1:1 to either the intervention (Engager plus usual care) or usual care alone. Engager included psychological and practical support in prison, on release and for 3–5 months in the community. The primary outcome was the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), 6 months after release. Primary analysis compared groups based on intention-to-treat (ITT).
In total, 280 men were randomised out of the 396 who were potentially eligible and agreed to participate; 105 did not meet the mental health inclusion criteria. There was no mean difference in the ITT complete case analysis between groups (92 in each arm) for change in the CORE-OM score (1.1, 95% CI –1.1 to 3.2, P = 0.325) or secondary analyses. There were no consistent clinically significant between-group differences for secondary outcomes. Full delivery was not achieved, with 77% (108/140) receiving community-based contact.
Engager is the first trial of a collaborative care intervention adapted for prison leavers. The intervention was not shown to be effective using standard outcome measures. Further testing of different support strategies for prison with mental health problems is needed.
The number of people over the age of 65 attending Emergency Departments (ED) in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing. Those who attend with a mental health related problem may be referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. Improving responsiveness and integration of liaison psychiatry in general hospital settings is a national priority. To do this psychiatry teams must be adequately resourced and organised. However, it is unknown how trends in the number of referrals of older people to liaison psychiatry teams by EDs are changing, making this difficult.
We performed a national multi-centre retrospective service evaluation, analysing existing psychiatry referral data from EDs of people over 65. Sites were selected from a convenience sample of older peoples liaison psychiatry departments. Departments from all regions of the UK were invited to participate via the RCPsych liaison and older peoples faculty email distribution lists. From departments who returned data, we combined the date and described trends in the number and rate of referrals over a 7 year period.
Referral data from up to 28 EDs across England and Scotland over a 7 year period were analysed (n = 18828 referrals). There is a general trend towards increasing numbers of older people referred to liaison psychiatry year on year. Rates rose year on year from 1.4 referrals per 1000 ED attenders (>65 years) in 2011 to 4.5 in 2019 . There is inter and intra site variability in referral numbers per 1000 ED attendances between different departments, ranging from 0.1 - 24.3.
To plan an effective healthcare system we need to understand the population it serves, and have appropriate structures and processes within it. The overarching message of this study is clear; older peoples mental health emergencies presenting in ED are common and appear to be increasingly so. Without appropriate investment either in EDs or community mental health services, this is unlikely to improve.
The data also suggest very variable inter-departmental referral rates. It is not possible to establish why rates from one department to another are so different, or whether outcomes for the population they serve are better or worse. The data does however highlight the importance of asking further questions about why the departments are different, and what impact that has on the patients they serve.
This Element critically surveys the full range of G. E. Moore's ethical thought, including: (1) his rejection of naturalism in favor of the view that 'good' designates a simple, indefinable property, which cannot be identified with or reduced to any other property; (2) his understanding of intrinsic value, his doctrine of organic wholes, his repudiation of hedonism, and his substantive account of the most important goods and evils; and (3) his critique of egoism and subjectivism and his elaboration of a non-hedonistic variant of utilitarianism that, among other things, creatively blends aspects of act- and rule-oriented versions of that theory.
It is estimated that 1 in 10 people have a personality disorder. People with emotionally unstable personality disorder are at high risk of suicide. Despite being frequent users of mental health services, there is often no clear pathway for patients to access effective treatments.
To describe the characteristics of patients with personality disorder who died by suicide, examine clinical care pathways and explore whether the care adhered to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance.
National consecutive case series (1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013). The study examined the health records and serious incident reports of patients with personality disorder who died by suicide in the UK.
The majority had a diagnosis of borderline/emotionally unstable or antisocial personality disorder. A high proportion of patients had a history of self-harm (n = 146, 95%) and alcohol (n = 101, 66%) or drug misuse (n = 79, 52%). We found an extensive pattern of service contact in the year before death, with no clear pathway for patients. Care was inconsistent and there were gaps in service provision. In 99 (70%) of the 141 patients with data, the last episode of care followed a crisis. Access to specialised psychological therapies was limited; short-term in-patient admissions was adhered to; however, guidance on short-term prescribing for comorbid conditions was not followed for two-thirds of patients.
Continuity and stability of care is required to prevent, rather than respond to individuals in crisis. A comprehensive audit of services for people with personality disorder across the UK is recommended to assess the quality of care provided.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
Fatigue cracking in polycrystalline NiTi was investigated using a multiscale experimental framework for average grain sizes (GS) from 10 to 1500 nm for the first time. Macroscopic fatigue crack growth rates, measured by optical digital image correlation, were connected to microscopic crack opening and closing displacements, measured by scanning electron microscope DIC (SEM-DIC) using a high-precision external SEM scan controller. Among all grain sizes, the 1500 nm GS sample exhibited the slowest crack growth rate at the macroscale, and the largest crack opening level (stress intensity at first crack opening) and minimum crack opening displacements at the microscale. Smaller GS samples (10, 18, 42, and 80 nm) exhibited nonmonotonic trends in their fatigue performance, yet the correlation was strong between macroscale and microscale behaviors for each GS. The samples that exhibited the fastest crack growth rates (42 and 80 nm GS) showed a small crack opening level and the largest crack opening displacements. The irregular trends in fatigue performance across the nanocrystalline GS samples were consistent with nonmonotonic values in the elastic modulus reported previously, both of which may be related to the presence of residual martensite only evident in the small GS samples (10 and 18 nm).
With the shift to earlier maturing soybean cultivars, harvest interference data are needed at low weed densities that will not reduce yield, but may affect soybean quality or harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine the density of five weeds necessary to warrant desiccation treatments. There were no consistent differences in losses of harvestable soybean due to weed density. Common cocklebur increased foreign material and soybean moisture at a greater rate than did hemp sesbania, ivyleaf morningglory, or redroot pigweed, with sicklepod intermediate among these species. Soybean test weight was reduced by 17, 13, and 59 g/L for each plant/meter of row with redroot pigweed, sicklepod, and common cocklebur, respectively, whereas hemp sesbania and ivyleaf morningglory did not affect test weight. However, all species evaluated increased damaged soybean seeds by 8.2 to 11.1% for each plant/meter of row. Combine speed was not affected substantially by the weed densities evaluated.
The dissipation of four commonly used soil-applied herbicides was examined in a standardized field experiment in three southern states (Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee). Averaged over the three soils and 2 yr, the relative order of increasing half-life defined as time for 50% disappearance in days (DT50) was acetochlor (6.3 d) = alachlor (6.3 d) = SAN 582 (7.3 d) < metolachlor (13.7 d). Metolachlor was the most persistent in the soil surface, and this could potentially translate into greater duration of weed control into the growing season. All examined herbicides had a DT50 that averaged less than 14 d in all states in both years, so full-season weed control of susceptible species would not be expected. Rapid herbicide degradation was encouraged in these field sites by adequate to excessive soil moisture and warm temperatures throughout the sampling interval. The soils also were light textured, and the lower adsorption of the herbicide allowed for degradation ease and perhaps leaching below the sampling depth.
Field experiments were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the effect of herbicide incorporation to various depths on common cocklebur control with imazaquin, a tank mix of imazaquin and metribuzin, and a preformulated mixture of chlorimuron and metribuzin in soybeans. Herbicide rates included were two-thirds and the full registered rate. All treatments, except chlorimuron plus metribuzin (50 plus 320 g ai/ha, respectively), controlled more common cocklebur when incorporated to depths of 2.5 to 7.6 cm than when left unincorporated. Also, imazaquin at 90 g ai/ha and the tank mix of imazaquin plus metribuzin at 90 plus 280 g ai/ha, when incorporated, controlled more common cocklebur than higher rates of the same combination when not incorporated. Common cocklebur control was similar with 2.5-, 5.0-, and 7.6-cm soil incorporation depths.
Field experiments were conducted in 1986 and 1987 to evaluate the effect of herbicide rate (two-thirds and maximum labeled rate) and timing of application before soybean planting on common cocklebur control. In 1986, chlorimuron plus metribuzin at 50 plus 320 and 80 plus 480 g ai/ha and imazaquin at 90 g ai/ha applied at planting controlled common cocklebur better than when applied 4 weeks before planting (WBP). Imazaquin at 140 g/ha applied at planting controlled common cocklebur better than when applied 6 WBP. All treatments at two-thirds of the labeled rate applied at planting controlled common cocklebur comparable to the full labeled rate applied 2, 4, or 6 WBP. In 1987, all treatments applied 2 WBP controlled common cocklebur better than when applied 4, 6, or 8 WPB.
The effect of adding a spray adjuvant to SAN 582H tank mixtures with fluazifop-P, imazethapyr, and sethoxydim was evaluated. SAN 582H synergistically increased broadleaf signalgrass control with reduced rates of all three postemergence (POST) herbicides when no spray adjuvant was used and when crop oil concentrate was added. For example, broadleaf signalgrass control increased from 50% to 83% when SAN 582H was tank-mixed with 52 g ai/ha sethoxydim and crop oil concentrate. In another experiment, several formulations of SAN 582H, including blank solvent-only formulations (no SAN 582H), were evaluated in combination with a reduced rate of sethoxydim to determine the source of synergism from tank mixtures. The SAN 582H molecule, not the carrier solvents in formulated product, was determined to be the source of synergism. The synergistic properties of SAN 582H were compared to other chloroacetamides. Synergism from acetochlor was similar to SAN 582H when applied POST with a reduced rate of either fluazifop-P, imazethapyr, or sethoxydim for grass control. Metolachlor also synergistically increased the control of grasses with the POST herbicides; however, metolachlor caused considerable phytotoxicity when applied alone and synergistic interactions were detected less frequently. The efficacy of sethoxydim mixed with SAN 582H was evaluated under different soil moisture conditions. Broadleaf signalgrass control increased from 81% to 93% under dry, moisture-stressed conditions when 210 g/ha sethoxydim was tank- mixed with SAN 582H.
Field experiments were conducted at three locations in Mississippi in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate labeled and alternative herbicides and herbicide combinations for weed desiccation prior to soybean harvest. Weeds evaluated included pitted morningglory, hemp sesbania, spotted spurge, common cocklebur, and sicklepod. Soybean yield and harvestable soybean losses were not affected by preharvest herbicide treatments, spray volume, or surfactant concentration. Soybean moisture was most consistently reduced by glufosinate compared to the untreated and other herbicides and herbicide combinations evaluated. Most desiccation treatments at Stoneville and Brooksville resulted in foreign material similar to the weed-free check. Glufosinate at 0.84, 1.1, and 1.4 kg ai/ha desiccated all weeds evaluated 90% or more with no differences among rates. The addition of 3.4 or 6.7 kg ai/ha sodium chlorate to 0.28 kg ai/ha paraquat, 1.1 and 2.2 kg ai/ha glyphosate, or 0.28 and 0.56 kg ai/ha oxyfluorfen increased desiccation of most weeds evaluated, with no difference between sodium chlorate rates. In some instances, reducing application volume from 281 to 94 L/ha improved pitted morningglory desiccation when 0.28 g/ha paraquat was applied alone. There were no differences between 0.25 and 0.50% (v/v) surfactant for most parameters evaluated.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate postemergence (POST)-applied tank mixtures of 560, 1,120, and 1,680 g ai/ha glyphosate with or without 1,120 g ai/ha SAN 582 (proposed name, dimethenamid) as burndown treatments or POST in glyphosate-tolerant soybean. SAN 582 was not antagonistic with glyphosate at the glyphosate rates evaluated. In the burndown study, glyphosate controlled horseweed 98% or more and curly dock 82% or more with or without SAN 582. However, broadleaf signalgrass emerged after the burndown treatments were applied. All tank mixtures that included SAN 582 controlled broadleaf signalgrass 84 to 96%, 6 wk after treatment. In the glyphosate-tolerant soybean study, glyphosate controlled barnyardgrass and johnsongrass present at the time of application 89% or more, regardless of rate. Tank mixtures of SAN 582 with glyphosate controlled late-season flushes of barnyardgrass through residual activity of the SAN 582. Applying SAN 582 with glyphosate improved soybean yield 500 kg/ha over glyphosate applied alone.