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In US government courses, simulations have been shown to increase students’ engagement and knowledge retention. We present an original simulation that focuses on both the interactions between political institutions that contribute to policy making and the normative ideas underlying politics. By exploring a civil rights or liberties policy area, students learn about the importance of both political institutions and foundational political ideas such as liberty and equality. Students role-play members of Congress, lobbyists for a pro- or anti-natural gas pipeline group, and Supreme Court justices. Although the goal of simulations in many US government courses is to teach students about the ways that institutions shape policy, this is the first (to our knowledge) that also integrates normative reflection on the ideas behind political arguments. Assessment indicates that the simulation was effective in increasing students’ knowledge of and/or interest in American political institutions and eminent domain.
To estimate population-based rates and to describe clinical characteristics of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza.
US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2011–2012 through 2018–2019 seasons.
Patients were identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing. HA influenza was defined as a positive influenza test date and respiratory symptom onset >3 days after admission. Patients with positive test date >3 days after admission but missing respiratory symptom onset date were classified as possible HA influenza.
Among 94,158 influenza-associated hospitalizations, 353 (0.4%) had HA influenza. The overall adjusted rate of HA influenza was 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Among HA influenza cases, 50.7% were 65 years of age or older, and 52.0% of children and 95.7% of adults had underlying conditions; 44.9% overall had received influenza vaccine prior to hospitalization. Overall, 34.5% of HA cases received ICU care during hospitalization, 19.8% required mechanical ventilation, and 6.7% died. After including possible HA cases, prevalence among all influenza-associated hospitalizations increased to 1.3% and the adjusted rate increased to 1.5 per 100,000 persons.
Over 8 seasons, rates of HA influenza were low but were likely underestimated because testing was not systematic. A high proportion of patients with HA influenza were unvaccinated and had severe outcomes. Annual influenza vaccination and implementation of robust hospital infection control measures may help to prevent HA influenza and its impacts on patient outcomes and the healthcare system.
Measurement burst designs, in which assessments of a set of constructs are made at two or more times in quick succession (e.g., within days), can be used as a novel method to improve the stability of basic measures typically used in longitudinal peer research. In this Element, we hypothesized that the stabilities for adolescent-reported peer acceptance, anxiety, and self-concept would be stronger when using the measurement burst approach versus the single time observation. Participants included youth between 10 and 13 years old who completed (a) sociometric assessments of acceptance, and measures of (b) social and test anxiety, and (c) self-concept across three times with two assessments made at each burst. Findings broadly showed that the stabilities were significantly stronger with the measurement burst when compared to the single time assessment, supporting our main hypothesis. We discuss the utility of the measurement burst in a broader context and considerations for researchers.
Intra-hospital transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major concern. Psychiatric in-patient units pose unique challenges for the prevention of transmission. ‘COVID-triage’ wards with strict infection control procedures have been implemented to prevent the spread of infection, but little is known about the extent to which psychiatric in-patients adhere to these procedures.
To examine patient adherence with infection control measures on a novel ‘COVID-triage’ psychiatric in-patient ward in London, England.
This was an observational study of adherence with infection control measures. The proportion of patients who were adherent with infection control measures was calculated. The association of adherence with demographic and clinical factors was examined.
The majority of patients (n = 138/176, 78.4%) were not adherent with infection control measures. However, adherence did improve when patients who were non-adherent were given direct instructions by staff during clinical contact. Patients with diagnoses of psychotic disorders, personality disorders and substance use disorders were less likely to be adherent than those without these diagnoses.
Psychiatric in-patients show poor adherence with infection control measures. Proactive engagement by staff is key to improving patients’ adherence. Urgent efforts are needed to identify and implement other effective methods of improving adherence in acute settings.
To examine whether national initiatives have led to improvements in the physical health of people with psychosis. Secondary analysis of a national audit of services for people with psychosis. Proportions of patients in ‘good health’ according to seven measures, and one composite measure derived from national standards, were compared between multiple rounds of data collection.
The proportion of patients in overall ‘good health’ under the care of ‘Early Intervention in Psychosis’ teams increased from 2014–2019, particularly for measures of smoking, alcohol and substance use. There was no overall change in the proportion of patients in overall ‘good health’ under the care of ‘Community Mental Health Teams’ from 2011–2017. However, there were improvements in alcohol use, blood glucose and lipid levels.
There have been modest improvements in the health of people with psychosis over the last nine years. Continuing efforts are required to translate these improvements into reductions in premature mortality.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our may suggest that delta hsTrop could be of prognostic value in patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: - METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We analyzed data of those presenting to the ED over an 18-month period with sepsis and at least one episode of hypotension after 1 liter of IV fluids. We performed a retrospective analysis using a cohort derived from modified inclusion and exclusion criteria from the CLOVERS study. The outcomes of patients found to have a delta (at least 6 pg/dL) in high sensitivity troponin T were compared to patients who did not have a delta or have a troponin level measured. We examined demographic and treatment characteristics of this cohort and the incidence of adverse outcomes were determined. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to test the association of hsTrop and mortality. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: 778 patients met criteria to be included in the cohort. 279 patients had a change in high sensitivity troponins, an incidence of 35.9%. Patients with a delta were more likely to be older, male, and have a higher Charlson index than patients without a delta or those that had no troponin measured. They were also more likely to have a history of chronic lung disease, heart failure and hypertension. Change in high sensitivity troponins were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. When adjusted for age, gender, and Charlson Index, the association between a positive delta troponin and mortality remained statistically significant. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, the presence of a positive or negative delta hsTrop at 2 hours is associated with increased mortality. Measurement of high sensitivity troponin early in the patient’s hospital course may have prognostic utility.
A full-term, female presented on her date of birth with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and mitral regurgitation (MR), requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After the treatment, her PH and MR were resolved with no anatomic abnormality present. We propose a positive feedback loop of PH causing right ventricular dilation and interventricular septal shifts, worsening MR, and elevated left atrial, and potentially pulmonary, pressures.
Postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of insulin resistance in adolescents is increasing, but it is unknown how adolescent participant characteristics such as BMI, waist circumference, fitness and maturity offset may explain responses to a standard meal. The aim of the present study was to examine how such participant characteristics affect the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to an ecologically valid mixed meal. Data from the control trials of three separate randomised, crossover experiments were pooled, resulting in a total of 108 participants (fifty-two boys, fifty-six girls; aged 12·5 (SD 0·6) years; BMI 19·05 (SD 2·66) kg/m2). A fasting blood sample was taken for the calculation of fasting insulin resistance, using the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Further capillary blood samples were taken before and 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardised lunch, providing 1·5 g/kg body mass of carbohydrate, for the quantification of blood glucose and plasma insulin total AUC (tAUC). Hierarchical multiple linear regression demonstrated significant predictors for plasma insulin tAUC were waist circumference, physical fitness and HOMA-IR (F(3,98) = 36·78, P < 0·001, adjusted R2 = 0·515). The variance in blood glucose tAUC was not significantly explained by the predictors used (F(7,94) = 1·44, P = 0·198). Significant predictors for HOMA-IR were BMI and maturity offset (F(2,102) = 14·06, P < 0·001, adjusted R2 = 0·021). In summary, the key findings of the study are that waist circumference, followed by physical fitness, best explained the insulinaemic response to an ecologically valid standardised meal in adolescents. This has important behavioural consequences because these variables can be modified.
Questions have been raised regarding differences in the standards of care that patients receive when they are admitted to or discharged from in-patient units at weekends.
To compare the quality of care received by patients with anxiety and depressive disorders who were admitted to or discharged from psychiatric hospital at weekends with those admitted or discharged during the ‘working week’.
Retrospective case-note review of 3795 admissions to in-patient psychiatric wards in England. Quality of care received by people with depressive or anxiety disorders was compared using multivariable regression analyses.
In total, 795 (20.9%) patients were admitted at weekends and 157 (4.8%) were discharged at weekends. There were minimal differences in quality of care between those admitted at weekends and those admitted during the week. Patients discharged at weekends were less likely to be given sufficient notification (48 h) in advance of being discharged (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.39–0.78), to have a crisis plan in place (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.46–0.92) or to be given medication to take home (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.30–0.66). They were also less likely to have been assessed using a validated outcome measure (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.97).
There is no evidence of a ‘weekend effect’ for patients admitted to psychiatric hospital at weekends, but the quality of care offered to those who were discharged at weekends was relatively poor, highlighting the need for improvement in this area.
Imagine a society comprising individuals who realize their maximal potential in every facet of their lives. In this society, people work together to better their communities and the lives of others. Individually, the citizens are free of disease, physically fit, well-educated masters of their craft, and they engage in a life of recreation and interconnectedness with family, neighbors, and friends while living with purpose and passion. Is this utopia too good to be true? The voice of reason may say life is not perfect; there are too many ever-changing variables. We are familiar with the physical law of entropy stating that randomness, or disorder, increases with time. However, why not aim toward a society as described above? We can strive to be the best version of ourselves, both on the micro, individual level and on the macro, societal level.
Wellness is often intimidating. Pursuing it requires significant commitment and carries emotional risk/vulnerability . While fear can be a strong motivator, it can also be the reason one may not try or follow-through with a plan. In most cases, fear prevents us from being able to accomplish what we wish to. In the case of wellness, we found that due to the commitment many were challenged by the fear of not being able to achieve the results and goals they had set for themselves. For example, if one was never taught, or had modeled, how to live a life full of joy, love, and wellness, they will fear a life different than what they were taught, whether by observation or directly. Occasionally it can be more difficult and painful to break a pattern than to live in it . The path to wellness will likely be unique for each and every one of us.
This chapter provides an overview of the use of affect-based interventions to change behavior. Affect is defined in terms of affect proper and affect processing; both of these terms are used regularly in research on affect interventions. The evidence of direct modification of these affect constructs is then reviewed. Based on this evidence, step-by-step guides to techniques focusing on changing two key aspects of affective processing are provided: changing affective attitudes and anticipated affect. The guides to these techniques include typical means of delivery, target audience, behaviors, enabling or inhibiting factors, training and skills required, intensiveness, typical materials needed, and typical examples of implementation. In addition, application of implementation intentions, fear appeals, evaluative conditioning, and exercise games as other ways to change affect as a means to changing behavior are reviewed. Finally, two additional intervention pathways that could have impact on behavior change are reviewed: direct modification of other sources of behavioral influence (e.g., traditional social cognitive factors) in order to overcompensate for the impact of affect and self-regulation of the intensity of the affect experience as a means of inhibiting its impact.
Mass gatherings and high-density activities, such as sporting events, conventions, and theme parks, are consistently included among highest-risk activities given the increased potential for widespread coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission. A more balanced risk management approach is required because absolute suppression of risk is unrealistic in all facets of life. Contact tracing remains a limiting factor in achieving such a balance. The use of Bluetooth or pairing devices is proposed to address this challenge. This simple approach, when applied in a manner that satisfies privacy and trust concerns, would allow high-risk encounters to be quickly identified, namely those where participants have spent 15 minutes or more within 6 ft of each other per current guidelines. If an attendee later tests positive for COVID-19 and tracing is required, the event organizer can provide a limited list of potential close contacts rather than an exhaustive list of all attendees. Contact tracers can, therefore, limit efforts to this concise group rather than needing to contact thousands of people or conduct mass media communications. Such a system, if institutionalized, supports risk assurance and safety measures for businesses by demonstrating a commitment to staff, customer protection, and ensuring high-risk encounters are logged, reinforcing longer-term societal pandemic resilience.
The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution proscribes governments from imposing “cruel and unusual punishments,” as well as excessive bail and fines. The Amendment has roots in a similar provision in the English Bill of Rights, which historically sought to prevent extreme punishments like the whipping, pillorying, defrocking, and life imprisonment of Titus Oates for perjury. Despite the historical importance of the Amendment, U.S. courts and scholars have given the Amendment and its prohibitions relatively little attention. In particular, the Supreme Court has construed its text quite narrowly, especially outside of the capital context.
As with many constitutional provisions, the language of the Eighth Amendment is open-ended and vague in its proscription of excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments. Because the language of the Constitution does not provide any additional descriptive information concerning what might make bail or fines excessive, or punishments cruel and unusual, courts must look beyond the text itself to ascertain the meaning of the Eighth Amendment. With respect to the prohibition on cruel and unusual punishments, the U.S. Supreme Court has, over the course of several decades, articulated a number of relevant underlying values that offer some guidance in interpreting this Eighth Amendment provision. These values are also helpful in assessing the excessiveness of bail and fines.