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The Cincinnatian (Katian) of the Cincinnati Tri-State area is widely regarded as one of the most fossiliferous sections known (Meyer and Davis, 2009). Echinoderms from these strata include well-described asteroids, crinoids, cyclocystoids, edrioasteroids, glyptocystoids, mitrates, and ophiuroids. John Pope discovered a partially articulated echinoderm in float from the Fairview Formation that does not correspond to any known Cincinnatian echinoderm. Although mentioned in Ubaghs (1966, as a presumable personal communication from Pope, 1960), Haude and Langenstrassen (1976), Reich (2001), and Reich and Haude (2004), this specimen at the Cincinnati Museum Center (CMCPIP 51316) has neither been described nor illustrated; yet, these authors attributed it to Volchovia Hecker, 1938 in the Class Ophiocistioidea. Questions swirl around this fossil: what is its complete morphology; does it belong to Volchovia; whether or not it can be assigned to Volchovia, is it an ophiocistioid? The first step to understand this enigmatic echinoderm is to illustrate and describe the specimen, which is the objective of this note.
To assess extent of a healthcare-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control measures, including universal masking.
Outbreak investigation including 4 large-scale point-prevalence surveys.
Integrated VA healthcare system with 2 facilities and 330 beds.
Index patient and 250 exposed patients and staff.
We identified exposed patients and staff and classified them as probable and confirmed cases based on symptoms and testing. We performed a field investigation and an assessment of patient and staff interactions to develop probable transmission routes. Infection prevention interventions included droplet and contact precautions, employee quarantine, and universal masking with medical and cloth face masks. We conducted 4 point-prevalence surveys of patient and staff subsets using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2.
Among 250 potentially exposed patients and staff, 14 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified. Patient roommates and staff with prolonged patient contact were most likely to be infected. The last potential date of transmission from staff to patient was day 22, the day universal masking was implemented. Subsequent point-prevalence surveys in 126 patients and 234 staff identified 0 patient cases and 5 staff cases of COVID-19, without evidence of healthcare-associated transmission.
Universal masking with medical face masks was effective in preventing further spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our facility in conjunction with other traditional infection prevention measures.
Herbicides have been a primary means of managing undesirable brush on grazing lands across the southwestern United States for decades. Continued encroachment of honey mesquite and huisache on grazing lands warrants evaluation of treatment life and economics of current and experimental treatments. Treatment life is defined as the time between treatment application and when canopy cover of undesirable brush returns to a competitive level with native forage grasses (i.e., 25% canopy cover for mesquite and 30% canopy cover for huisache). Treatment life of industry-standard herbicides was compared with that of aminocyclopyrachlor plus triclopyr amine (ACP+T) from 10 broadcast-applied honey mesquite and five broadcast-applied huisache trials established from 2007 through 2013 across Texas. On average, the treatment life of industry standard treatments (IST) for huisache was 3 yr. In comparison, huisache canopy cover was only 2.5% in plots treated with ACP+T 3 yr after treatment. The average treatment life of IST for honey mesquite was 8.6 yr, whereas plots treated with ACP+T had just 2% mesquite canopy cover at that time. Improved treatment life of ACP+T compared with IST life was due to higher mortality resulting in more consistent brush canopy reduction. The net present values (NPVs) of ACP+T and IST for both huisache and mesquite were similar until the treatment life of the IST application was reached (3 yr for huisache and 8.6 yr for honey mesquite). At that point, NPVs of the programs diverged as a result of brush competition with desirable forage grasses and additional input costs associated with theoretical follow-up IST necessary to maintain optimum livestock forage production. The ACP+T treatments did not warrant a sequential application over the 12-yr analysis for huisache or 20-yr analysis for honey mesquite that this research covered. These results indicate ACP+T provides cost-effective, long-term control of honey mesquite and huisache.
Paleozoic echinoids are exceptionally rare, and little is known of their paleoenvironmental distribution. The echinoid fauna of the Fort Payne Formation (Late Osagean, Early Viséan) of south-central Kentucky is documented. Four genera, ?Archaeocidaris, Lepidocidaris, ?Lepidesthes, and an unidentified lepidocentrid, were recovered and represent three different families. This fauna, and their associated paleoenvironments, give important new insights into the facies distribution of Paleozoic echinoids and the taphonomic biases that affect this distribution. Lepidocidaris is known from the green shale facies, which comprises the core of Fort Payne’s carbonate buildups. ?Archaeocidaris and the lepidocentrid are known from the wackestone buildups and crinoidal packstone buildups. ?Lepidesthes is also known from crinoidal packstone and wackestone buildups, which argues against a semi-infaunal life mode for this taxon. All relatively semiarticulated echinoids were known from autochthonous facies, whereas the only echinoids from the allochthonous facies were disarticulated hemipyramids. Furthermore, deeper-water carbonate buildups were apparently capable of supporting diverse echinoid faunas during the Viséan.
Reports of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among chronic hemodialysis patients to 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance systems (National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event and Emerging Infections Program) were compared to evaluate completeness of reporting. Many methicillin-resistant S. aureus bloodstream infections identified in hospitals were not reported to National Healthcare Safety Network Dialysis Event.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):205–207
Attentional impairment is a core cognitive feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, little is known of the characteristics of response time (RT) distributions from attentional tasks. This is crucial to furthering our understanding of the profile and extent of cognitive intra-individual variability (IIV) in mood disorders.
A computerized sustained attention task was administered to 138 healthy controls and 158 patients with a mood disorder: 86 euthymic BD, 33 depressed BD and 39 medication-free MDD patients. Measures of IIV, including individual standard deviation (iSD) and coefficient of variation (CoV), were derived for each participant. Ex-Gaussian (and Vincentile) analyses were used to characterize the RT distributions into three components: mu and sigma (mean and standard deviation of the Gaussian portion of the distribution) and tau (the ‘slow tail’ of the distribution).
Compared with healthy controls, iSD was increased significantly in all patient samples. Due to minimal changes in average RT, CoV was only increased significantly in BD depressed patients. Ex-Gaussian modelling indicated a significant increase in tau in euthymic BD [Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.69, p = 0.011], and both sigma (d = 0.57, 95% CI 0.07–1.05, p = 0.025) and tau (d = 1.14, 95% CI 0.60–1.64, p < 0.0001) in depressed BD. The mu parameter did not differ from controls.
Increased cognitive variability may be a core feature of mood disorders. This is the first demonstration of differences in attentional RT distribution parameters between MDD and BD, and BD depression and euthymia. These data highlight the utility of applying measures of IIV to characterize neurocognitive variability and the great potential for future application.
Crinoids were relatively unaffected by the end-Devonian Hangenberg mass extinction event. Major clades of Devonian durophagous fishes suffered significant extinctions, however, and the dominant surviving clades were biting or nipping predators. In part as a response to the Hangenberg event, early Mississippian crinoids underwent an adaptive radiation, while fish clades with a shell-crushing durophagous strategy diversified. Durophagous predators are inferred to have been more effective predators on camerate crinoids; and it is hypothesized, following the predictions of escalation, that through the early Mississippian, camerate crinoids evolved more effective anti-predatory strategies in response. We test this hypothesis of escalation by examining the changes in spinosity and plate convexity among camerate crinoids throughout this interval. A new method was formulated to test for an increase in convexity of the tegmen plates. Traits in Agaricocrinus, Aorocrinus, and Dorycrinus (Family Coelocrinidae) were tested for congruence to the escalation hypothesis, and results were mixed. Convexity of tegmen plates in Agaricocrinus, spine length/calyx diameter in Aorocrinus, calyx size in Aorocrinus, central spine length in Dorycrinus, and spine width in Dorycrinus did not have size increase trends supporting escalation. Rather than an increase in convexity, the variance of convexity in Agaricocrinus tegmen plates narrowed, which could reflect an optimum. Alternatively, morphological change consistent with the escalation hypothesis occurred in calyx size of Agaricocrinus and in lateral spine length and calyx size in Dorycrinus. Furthermore, central and lateral spine length, parameters of the spine width, and size trends support escalation when Aorocrinus and Dorycrinus are treated as a lineage. Thus, inferred escalation acted on traits differently within a single lineage and was relevant for both speciation and the diversification of a new genus.
Without question state decision makers seek and have sought status. It is certainly not the only goal that they pursue. But then, we have not had much luck theoretically restricting state goals solely to maximizing power or security. We should be open to alternative motivations. Improved status aspirations for rising powers, in particular, are quite prominent in world history. Whether the aspirations are accommodated or not (and not is more common), rising powers historically have been expected to “make their bones” by demonstrating their worthiness for promotion into a system’s elite through displaying some degree of martial prowess on the battlefield. Examining Jack Levy’s great-power schedule, seven of eight new states rising into great-power status are associated with violence. The Netherlands (1609) had to fight Spain to a temporary truce, Sweden (1617) had to defeat Poland and Russia, Russia (1721) had to win the Great Northern War, Prussia (1740) had to seize Silesia from Austria and hang onto it, Italy (1861) fought Austria in 1859 (albeit with French help) and two wars in 1860 over the control of Rome and Sicily, the United States (1898) acquired Spanish colonies coercively, and Japan (1905) defeated both China and Russia prior to its ascension. Only China (1949) did not have to beat any foreign foe, but one side had to win a long-running civil war and, within a year, take on the international system’s strongest power in Korea. It is not surprising, then, that rising powers and their enhanced status concerns are worrisome. The history of great-power ascensions has been less than pacific. It may well be that we have moved beyond older, more primitive rites of passage for entry into elite circles, but that remains to be seen. Other than the partial Chinese exception, no state has been accorded great-power status without a fight of some sort.
It sometimes seems as if explaining the outbreak of war in 1914 is a holy grail for international relations specialists in war etiology. The First World War, of course, was not a minor event in the annals of international history and that helps to explain some of its allure. Its reputation as the war no one wanted also makes it something of a magnet for scholarly entrepreneurs. Explaining the inexplicable is always a worthy challenge. Moreover, the developments that transpired prior to the outbreak of war are sufficiently complicated that almost every model ever created in international relations seems to fit. Yet underlying the whole explanatory edifice is the early and continuing search for blame, its evasion, and its former implications for postwar reparations and war guilt. Which country was most responsible for bringing about the onset of the First World War? In addition, a disproportional number of the central research foci in international relations – security dilemmas, spiral dynamics, offensive–defensive arguments, crisis dynamics, alliances, arms races – stem to varying extents from interpretations of the onset of the First World War. If we get the outbreak of this “wrong” or have overlooked significant factors, we may be heading in the wrong direction in our search for general explanations of war causes.
A left coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with an anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva whose presenting sign was cardiac arrest. There is no reported instance of a child <9 years of age without other congenital cardiac defects having died suddenly with this coronary anomaly. The transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated normal origins of the coronary arteries, but on autopsy, an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva was found.