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Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response.
Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises.
Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period.
Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7–10)
The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) group is a consortium of eight longitudinal twin studies established to explore the nature of social context effects and gene-environment interplay in late-life functioning. The resulting analysis of the combined data from over 17,500 participants aged 25–102 at baseline (including nearly 2,600 monogygotic and 4,300 dizygotic twin pairs and over 1,700 family members) aims to understand why early life adversity, and social factors such as isolation and loneliness, are associated with diverse outcomes including mortality, physical functioning (health, functional ability), and psychological functioning (well-being, cognition), particularly in later life.
The present study was conducted to follow up on apparent differences in growth, relative organ sizes, cellular stress and immune function in Atlantic salmon fed feed containing GM Bacillus thuringiensis maize compared with feed containing the non-modified parental maize line. Gene expression profiling on the distal intestinal segment and liver was performed by microarray, and selected genes were followed up by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the liver, qPCR revealed some differentially regulated genes, including up-regulation of gelsolin precursor, down-regulation of ferritin heavy subunit and a tendency towards down-regulation of metallothionein (MT)-B. This, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein NR13 and similar tendencies for ferritin heavy chain and MT-A and -B in the distal intestine, suggests changes in cellular stress/antioxidant status. This corresponds well with and strengthens previous findings in these fish. To exclude possible confounding factors, the maize ingredients were analysed for mycotoxins and metabolites. The GM maize contained 90 μg/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON), while the non-GM maize was below the detection limit. Differences were also observed in the metabolite profiles of the two maize varieties, some of which seemed connected to the mycotoxin level. The effects on salmon observed in the present and previous studies correspond relatively well with the effects of DON as reported in the literature for other production animals, but knowledge regarding effects and harmful dose levels in fish is scarce. Thus, it is difficult to conclude whether the observed effects are caused by the DON level or by some other aspect of the GM maize ingredient.
Cassava is an important subsistence crop grown only in the tropics, and represents a major source of calories for many people in developing countries. Improvements in the areas of resistance to insects and viral diseases, enhanced nutritional qualities, reduced cyanogenic content and modified starch characteristics are urgently needed. Traditional breeding is hampered by the nature of the crop, which has a high degree of heterozygosity, irregular flowering, and poor seed set. Biotechnology has the potential to enhance crop improvement efforts, and genetic engineering techniques for cassava have thus been developed over the past decade. Selectable and scorable markers are critical to efficient transformation technology, and must be evaluated for biosafety, as well as efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In order to facilitate research planning and regulatory submission, the literature on biosafety aspects of the selectable and scorable markers currently used in cassava biotechnology is surveyed. The source, mode of action and current use of each marker gene is described. The potential for toxicity, allergenicity, pleiotropic effects, horizontal gene transfer, and the impact of these on food or feed safety and environmental safety is evaluated. Based on extensive information, the selectable marker genes nptII, hpt, bar/pat, and manA, and the scorable marker gene uidA, all have little risk in terms of biosafety. These appear to represent the safest options for use in cassava biotechnology available at this time.
The beneficial role of gastrointestinal endoscopy for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of many digestive diseases and cancer is well established. Like many sophisticated medical devices, the endoscope is a complex, reusable instrument that requires reprocessing before being used on subsequent patients. The most commonly used methods for reprocessing endoscopes result in high-level disinfection. To date, all published episodes of pathogen transmission related to gastrointestinal endoscopy have been associated with failure to follow established cleaning and disinfection/sterilization guidelines or use of defective equipment. Despite the strong published data regarding the safety of endoscope reprocessing, concern over the potential for pathogen transmission during endoscopy has raised questions about the best methods for disinfection or sterilization of these devices between patient uses.
Responding to assertions and evidence in a 1997 New Testament Studies article by R. F. Shedinger (and to George Howard, the editor of the text in question), this article demonstrates with fourteen textual examples and circumstantial evidence (Isaac Velasquez's Arabic gospel translation) that the Hebrew Matthew contained in Shem-Tob's Even Bohan (1) is part of the western harmonized gospel tradition, (2) is especially, often uniquely, related to the traditions which lie behind the Middle Dutch Liège Harmony, and (3) is translated from a medieval Latin Vorlage. In no way is it (pace Shedinger) related to 45 or (pace Howard) pre-Johannine.
Cholestyramine, the first bile acid sequestrant to be marketed, has been in use for over 20 years. Despite its low potency, requiring 16-24 g of polymer to achieve 20% LDL cholesterol reduction in hypercholesterolemic individuals, only one other sequestrant, colestipol, has come to market in the ensuing period. GelTex Pharmaceuticals has been involved for over six years in the discovery and development of new, more potent polymeric sequestrants. Two binding mechanisms are presented — one that operates via an aggregate binding structure and one that is effective via a defined site binding structure. These two binding mechanisms are compared and contrasted through bile acid binding isotherms. The best of these new sequestrants bind bile acids through a combination of hydrophobicity and ion exchange. Optimization and balancing of each of these interactions led us to more potent materials. The first of these, colesevelam hydrochloride is expected to be three to four times more potent than cholestyramine. A third generation product is still in research at GelTex. With another twofold increase in potency possible, single tablet therapy may become a reality.
During the Formative period (ca. 1000 B.C.-A.D. 250) at the site of Yarumela in central Honduras, an indigenous society developed that was constructing monumental architecture well before 400 B.C. Experimentation with new building materials and techniques reached a peak ca. A.D. 200 just prior to the site's abandonment, by which time religious temples and elite residences had undergone a transition from simple pole-and-thatch structures to more complex adobe and stone constructions. Overall labor investment in monumental architecture may, on the other hand, actually have declined during this same period.
Because of their early date (mid-second century) and interesting variants, the gospel citations of Justin Martyr — he almost always refers to his source as άπομνημονεύματα τν άποστόλων (‘memoirs of the apostles’), and only rarely as a ‘gospel’ — have long attracted scholars’ attention. It is self-evident that the citations contain numerous variant readings and are frequently harmonized; the dispute has been over what best explains this phenomenon. Semisch and Zahn said that the variant readings and harmonizations were due to lapses of Justin's memory. Credner argued that Justin's non-standard citations were the result of his reliance upon extracanonical gospels. Bousset opined that Justin had access to presynoptic traditions; this explained both the similarities and the differences between Justin's text and the later (revised) synoptic text. Von Engelhardt suggested that Justin used a post-synoptic gospel harmony. This position found support in the researches of Bellinzoni, who investigated the ‘sayings of Jesus’ genre in Justin. He noted passages cited more than once in exactly the same harmonized form, suggesting a written document, and passages paralleled in other early Christian sources in very similar harmonized form. Bellinzoni interpreted this as indicating that Justin had used a gospel harmony, which was also used by other early Christian writers. He noted that Justin's variant citations and harmonizations seemed especially close to those found in the Pseudo- Clementine Homilies and Recognitions. Bellinzoni concluded that this harmony was post-synoptic, excluded John, and ‘had great influence on the later manuscript tradition of Matthew, Mark and Luke’. In the last paragraph of his book, Bellinzoni speculated that the harmony used by Justin might have links with the Diatessaron: ‘Tatian was a pupil of Justin, … It is now apparent that the concept of a gospel harmony did not originate with Tatian.’
This article will presend evidence to demonstrate that Romanos, ‘the Melodist’, is a witness to the Diatessaron of Tatian. six new Diatessaronic readings, Present in both Romanos and other Diatessaronic witnesses, are adduced as evidence for this conclusion. These new readings are significant not only for their Diatessaronic status, but also for their textual, theolgical and historical import.