To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In all but the rarest circumstances, the world's deadly conflicts are ended not through outright victory, but through a series of negotiations. Not all of these negotiations, however, yield a durable peace. To successfully mitigate conflict drivers, the parties in conflict must address a number of puzzles, such as whether and how to share and/or re-establish a state's monopoly of force, reallocate the ownership and management of natural resources, modify the state structure, or provide for a path toward external self-determination. Successfully resolving these puzzles requires the parties to navigate a number of conundrums and make choices and design mechanisms that are appropriate to the particular context of the conflict, and which are most likely to lead to a durable peace. Lawyering Peace aims to help future negotiators build better and more durable peace agreements through a rigorous examination of how other parties have resolved these puzzles and associated conundrums.
Enrichment of the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) in carbonatites is rare as carbonatite petrogenesis favours the light (L)REE. We describe HREE enrichment in fenitized phonolite breccia, focusing on small satellite occurrences 1–2 km from the Songwe Hill carbonatite, Malawi. Within the breccia groundmass, a HREE-bearing mineral assemblage comprises xenotime, zircon, anatase/rutile and minor huttonite/thorite, as well as fluorite and apatite.
A genetic link between HREE mineralization and carbonatite emplacement is indicated by the presence of Sr-bearing carbonate veins, carbonatite xenoliths and extensive fenitization. We propose that the HREE are retained in hydrothermal fluids which are residually derived from a carbonatite after precipitation of LREE minerals. Brecciation provides a focusing conduit for such fluids, enabling HREE transport and xenotime precipitation in the fenite. Continued fluid–rock interaction leads to dissolution of HREE-bearing minerals and further precipitation of xenotime and huttonite/thorite.
At a maximum Y content of 3100 µg g−1, HREE concentrations in the presented example are not sufficient to constitute ore, but the similar composition and texture of these rocks to other cases of carbonatite-related HREE enrichment suggests that all form via a common mechanism linked to fenitization. Precipitation of HREE minerals only occurs where a pre-existing structure provides a focusing conduit for fenitizing fluids, reducing fluid – country-rock interaction. Enrichment of HREE and Th in fenite breccia serves as an indicator of fluid expulsion from a carbonatite, and may indicate the presence of LREE mineralization within the source carbonatite body at depth.
The objectives of this study were to develop and refine EMPOWER (Enhancing and Mobilizing the POtential for Wellness and Resilience), a brief manualized cognitive-behavioral, acceptance-based intervention for surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients and to evaluate its preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and promise in improving surrogates’ mental health and patient outcomes.
Part 1 involved obtaining qualitative stakeholder feedback from 5 bereaved surrogates and 10 critical care and mental health clinicians. Stakeholders were provided with the manual and prompted for feedback on its content, format, and language. Feedback was organized and incorporated into the manual, which was then re-circulated until consensus. In Part 2, surrogates of critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) reporting moderate anxiety or close attachment were enrolled in an open trial of EMPOWER. Surrogates completed six, 15–20 min modules, totaling 1.5–2 h. Surrogates were administered measures of peritraumatic distress, experiential avoidance, prolonged grief, distress tolerance, anxiety, and depression at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 1-month and 3-month follow-up assessments.
Part 1 resulted in changes to the EMPOWER manual, including reducing jargon, improving navigability, making EMPOWER applicable for a range of illness scenarios, rearranging the modules, and adding further instructions and psychoeducation. Part 2 findings suggested that EMPOWER is feasible, with 100% of participants completing all modules. The acceptability of EMPOWER appeared strong, with high ratings of effectiveness and helpfulness (M = 8/10). Results showed immediate post-intervention improvements in anxiety (d = −0.41), peritraumatic distress (d = −0.24), and experiential avoidance (d = −0.23). At the 3-month follow-up assessments, surrogates exhibited improvements in prolonged grief symptoms (d = −0.94), depression (d = −0.23), anxiety (d = −0.29), and experiential avoidance (d = −0.30).
Significance of results
Preliminary data suggest that EMPOWER is feasible, acceptable, and associated with notable improvements in psychological symptoms among surrogates. Future research should examine EMPOWER with a larger sample in a randomized controlled trial.
Description of a model to improve care for patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) by small targeted investment and maximisation of existing resources.
Treatment of MUS presents several challenges including a lack of clarity on the best models of care and limited service provision. Patients typically present with a physical complaint to physical health outlets: here limited confidence in professionals around how to address these often leads to poor patient/doctor experience, inappropriate use of resources and repeated attendance. Evidence shows that integration of care, psychological interventions and upskilling physicians in interventions such as positive communication, can significantly improve outcomes. Psychiatric Liaison Teams (PLT) are positioned at the interface of mental and physical health services and can play a crucial role for these patients, when provided with the right skill-mix.
1FTE Clinical Psychologist specialising in MUS was integrated into the PLT. Pathways to triage between primary, secondary psychology and the new service were agreed, alongside channels of communication and supervision. The job plan included integrated sessions in Gastroenterology, Rheumatology and PLT. The activities included: assessments, formulations and discharges; brief psychological interventions; group sessions for patients; one-day long courses to GP trainees and physicians, and input in specialities MDTs. Clinical outcomes, numbers of patients seen and signposted, teaching sessions and simulation training delivered were collected.
Over 20 months the service was able to process 237 referrals, 35 were managed over the phone. Referral sources: Gastroenterology 32%, Rheumatology 37%, Psychiatric liaison 28%.
116 patients attended 315 face to face appointments and 21 phone contacts were made. Core-10 data show reduction from moderately severe to mild psychological distress in a sample of patients. 58% of patients were referred on for continuing care. The service ran 8 patient groups including sessions on pain management and joint sessions with Rheumatology. It ran 9 one-day long courses for GP and physician trainees, training a total of 120 doctors: feedback showed increased confidence in managing and recognising MUS. Attendances to Emergency Departments covered by Barking Havering and Redbridge and Bart's Health Trusts combined (5 sites) reduced by 22%, saving an estimated £19,200, while ambulance usage in the cohort dropped by 29%, saving an estimated £9072.
The integration of a specialist psychologist with a mix of educational, advisory and clinical role to a PLT can provide an effective and efficient stepped-up model to increase the provision of care for patients with MUS
To examine whether national initiatives have led to improvements in the physical health of people with psychosis. Secondary analysis of a national audit of services for people with psychosis. Proportions of patients in ‘good health’ according to seven measures, and one composite measure derived from national standards, were compared between multiple rounds of data collection.
The proportion of patients in overall ‘good health’ under the care of ‘Early Intervention in Psychosis’ teams increased from 2014–2019, particularly for measures of smoking, alcohol and substance use. There was no overall change in the proportion of patients in overall ‘good health’ under the care of ‘Community Mental Health Teams’ from 2011–2017. However, there were improvements in alcohol use, blood glucose and lipid levels.
There have been modest improvements in the health of people with psychosis over the last nine years. Continuing efforts are required to translate these improvements into reductions in premature mortality.
Coil complexity is a critical consideration in stellarator design. The traditional two-step optimization approach, in which the plasma boundary is optimized for physics properties and the coils are subsequently optimized to be consistent with this boundary, can result in plasma shapes which cannot be produced with sufficiently simple coils. To address this challenge, we propose a method to incorporate considerations of coil complexity in the optimization of the plasma boundary. Coil complexity metrics are computed from the current potential solution obtained with the REGCOIL code (Landreman, Nucl. Fusion, vol. 57, 2017, 046003). While such metrics have previously been included in derivative-free fixed-boundary optimization (Drevlak et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 59, 2018, 016010), we compute the local sensitivity of these metrics with respect to perturbations of the plasma boundary using the shape gradient (Landreman & Paul, Nucl. Fusion, vol. 58, 2018, 076023). We extend REGCOIL to compute derivatives of these metrics with respect to parameters describing the plasma boundary. In keeping with previous research on winding surface optimization (Paul et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 58, 2018, 076015), the shape derivatives are computed with a discrete adjoint method. In contrast with the previous work, derivatives are computed with respect to the plasma surface parameters rather than the winding surface parameters. To further reduce the resolution required to compute the shape gradient, we present a more efficient representation of the plasma surface which uses a single Fourier series to describe the radial distance from a coordinate axis and a spectrally condensed poloidal angle. This representation is advantageous over the standard cylindrical representation used in the VMEC code (Hirshman & Whitson, Phys. Fluids, vol. 26, 1983, pp. 3553–3568), as it provides a uniquely defined poloidal angle, eliminating a null space in the optimization of the plasma surface. In comparison with previous spectral condensation methods (Hirshman & Breslau, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 5, 1998, p. 2664), the modified poloidal angle is obtained algebraically rather than through the solution of a nonlinear optimization problem. The resulting shape gradient highlights features of the plasma boundary that are consistent with simple coils and can be used to couple coil and fixed-boundary optimization.
To develop an online food composition database of locally consumed foods among an Indigenous population in south-western Uganda.
Using a community-based approach and collaboration with local nutritionists, we collected a list of foods for inclusion in the database through focus group discussions, an individual dietary survey and markets and shops assessment. The food database was then created using seven steps: identification of foods for inclusion in the database; initial data cleaning and removal of duplicate items; linkage of foods to existing generic food composition tables; mapping and calculation of the nutrient content of recipes and foods; allocating portion sizes and accompanying foods; quality checks with local and international nutritionists; and translation into relevant local languages.
Kanungu District, south-western Uganda.
Seventy-four participants, 36 Indigenous Batwa and 38 Bakiga, were randomly selected and interviewed to inform the development of a food list prior the construction of the food database.
We developed an online food database for south-western Uganda including 148 commonly consumed foods complete with values for 120 micronutrients and macronutrients. This was for use with the online dietary assessment tool myfood24. Of the locally reported foods included, 56 % (n 82 items) of the items were already available in the myfood24 database, while 25 % (n 37 items) were found in existing Ugandan and Tanzanian food databases, 18 % (n 27 items) came from generated recipes and 1 % (n 2 items) from food packaging labels.
Locally relevant food databases are sparse for African Indigenous communities. Here, we created a tool that can be used for assessing food intake and for tracking undernutrition among the communities living in Kanungu District. This will help to develop locally relevant food and nutrition policies.
The systems ecology paradigm (SEP) emerged in the late 1960s at a time when societies throughout the world were beginning to recognize that our environment and natural resources were being threatened by their activities. Management practices in rangelands, forests, agricultural lands, wetlands, and waterways were inadequate to meet the challenges of deteriorating environments, many of which were caused by the practices themselves. Scientists recognized an immediate need was developing a knowledge base about how ecosystems function. That effort took nearly two decades (1980s) and concluded with the acceptance that humans were components of ecosystems, not just controllers and manipulators of lands and waters. While ecosystem science was being developed, management options based on ecosystem science were shifting dramatically toward practices supporting sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, biodiversity, and local to global interconnections of ecosystems. Emerging from the new knowledge about how ecosystems function and the application of the systems ecology approach was the collaboration of scientists, managers, decision-makers, and stakeholders locally and globally. Today’s concepts of ecosystem management and related ideas, such as sustainable agriculture, ecosystem health and restoration, consequences of and adaptation to climate change, and many other important local to global challenges are a direct result of the SEP.
Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure is important in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Predictors of an elevated systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure prior to bidirectional Glenn operation have been incompletely identified.
All patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn operation operation at our centre between January 2007 and March 2017 were retrospectively identified and patient variables were extracted. For patients who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of this study, post-Fontan patient variables were also extracted.
One-hundred patients were included with a median age at pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation of 4.5 months. In total, 71 (71%) patients had a systemic right ventricle. At the pre-bidirectional Glenn operation catheterisation, the mean systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was higher amongst those with systemic right ventricle compared to left ventricle (9.1 mmHg ± 2.1 versus 7.7 ± 2.7 mmHg, p < 0.01). On univariate analysis, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01), history of recoarctation (p = 0.03), history of Norwood operation (p = 0.04), and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure was positively associated with the presence of a systemic right ventricle (p < 0.01) and ventricular systolic pressure (p < 0.01). Amongst those who had undergone Fontan operation at the time of study (n = 49), those with a higher pre-bidirectional Glenn operation systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure were more likely to have experienced death, transplantation, or listed for transplantation (p = 0.02) and more likely to have had heart failure symptoms (p = 0.04) at a mean time from Fontan of 5.2 years ± 1.3.
In patients undergoing bidirectional Glenn operation operation, the volume-loaded, pre-bidirectional Glenn operation state may expose diastolic dysfunction that has prognostic value.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Leverage community engagement to continue moving translational science and research forward. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Engaging community in translational research improves innovation and speeds the movement of evidence into practice. Yet, it is unclear how community is engaged across the translational research spectrum or the degree of community-engagement used. We conducted a scoping review to fill this gap. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used the PRISMA model search strategy with a range of databases (e.g., PubMed/Medline, Scopus) to identify articles published between January 2008 and November 2018 (n=167) and eliminated studies that did not use any level of community-engagement (n=102). Studies were coded for translational stage-corresponding to T0 (basic science), T1 (basic science to clinical research in humans; n=6), T2 (clinical efficacy and effectiveness research, n=45), T3 (dissemination and implementation research, n=95), and T4 (population health, n=21) as well as the degree of community engagement from least to most intensive (i.e., outreach, consultation, involvement, collaboration, shared leadership). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The final number of eligible articles was 65. There was a relatively balanced distribution across levels of community engagement across articles (i.e., outreach, n=14; consultation, n=13; involvement, n=7; collaboration, n=15; shared leadership, n=16). Within these articles, the depth of community engagement varied with higher engagement typically occurring at later stages of translational research (T3 and T4), but more specifically in the dissemination and implementation science stage (T3). However, shared leadership, the most intensive form of engagement, was found in T2, T3, and T4 studies suggesting the value of community-engagement across the translational research spectrum. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: A strong understanding of how various levels of community engagement are used in translational research, and the outcomes they produce, may to expedite the translation of knowledge into practice and enable practice-based needs to inform policy.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The distribution of genetic diversity in invasive plant populations can have important management implications. Alligatorweed [Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.] was introduced into the United States around 1900 and has since spread throughout much of the southern United States and California. A successful biological control program was initiated in the late 1960s that reduced A. philoxeroides in the southern United States, although control has varied geographically. The degree to which variation among genotypes may be responsible for variation in control efficacy has not been well studied due to a lack of genetic data. We sampled 373 plants from 90 sites across the United States and genotyped all samples at three chloroplast regions to help inform future management efforts. Consistent with clonal spread, there was high differentiation between sites, yet we found six haplotypes and high haplotype diversity (mean h = 0.48) across states, suggesting this plant has been introduced multiple times. Two of the haplotypes correspond to previously described biotypes that differ in their susceptibility to herbicides and herbivory. The geographic distribution of the three common haplotypes varied by latitude and longitude, while the other haplotypes were widespread or localized to one or a few sites. All the haplotypes we screened are hexaploid (6n = 102), which may enhance biological control. Future studies can use these genetic data to determine whether genotypes differ in their invasiveness or respond differently to control measures. Some states, for instance, have mainly a single haplotype that may respond more uniformly to a single control strategy, whereas other states may require a variety of control strategies. These data will also provide the basis for identifying the source regions in South America, which may lead to the discovery of new biological control agents more closely matched to particular genotypes.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Most invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (iMRSA) infections have onset in the community but are associated with healthcare exposures. More than 25% of cases with healthcare exposure occur in nursing homes (NHs) where facility-specific iMRSA rates vary widely. We assessed associations between nursing home characteristics and iMRSA incidence rates to help target prevention efforts in NHs. Methods: We used active, laboratory- and population-based surveillance data collected through the Emerging Infections Program during 2011–2015 from 25 counties in 7 states. NH-onset cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident who was in a NH within 3 days before the index culture. We calculated MRSA incidence (cases per NH resident day) using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) skilled nursing facility cost reports and described variation in iMRSA incidence by NH. We used Poisson regression with backward selection, assessing variables for collinearity, to estimate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for NH characteristics (obtained from the CMS minimum dataset) associated with iMRSA rates. Results: Of 590 surveillance area NHs included in analysis, 89 (15%) had no NH-onset iMRSA infections. Rates ranged from 0 to 23.4 infections per 100,000 resident days. Increased rate of NH-onset iMRSA infection occurred with increased percentage of residents in short stay ≤30 days (aRR, 1.09), exhibiting wounds or infection (surgical wound [aRR, 1.08]; vascular ulcer/foot infection [aRR, 1.09]; multidrug-resistant organism infection [aRR, 1.13]; receipt of antibiotics [aRR, 1.06]), using medical devices or invasive support (ostomy [aRR, 1.07]; dialysis [aRR, 1.07]; ventilator support [aRR, 1.17]), carrying neurologic diagnoses (cerebral palsy [aRR, 1.14]; brain injury [aRR, 1.1]), and demonstrating debility (requiring considerable assistance with bed mobility [aRR, 1.05]) (Table). iMRSA rates decreased with increased percentage of residents receiving influenza vaccination (aRR, 0.96) and with the presence of any patients in isolation for any active infection (aRR, 0.83). Conclusions: iMRSA incidence varies greatly across nursing homes, with many NH patient and facility characteristics associated with NH-onset iMRSA rate differences. Some associations (short stay, wounds and infection, medical device use and invasive support) suggest that targeted interventions utilizing known strategies to decrease transmission may help to reduce infection rates, while others (neurologic diagnoses, influenza vaccination, presence of patients in isolation) require further exploration to determine their role. These findings can help identify NHs in other areas more likely to have higher rates of NH-onset iMRSA who could benefit from interventions to reduce infection rates.
The dynamics of choice and self-selection are central features of politics but absent from most experimental designs. We show how designs that incorporate choice, by allowing some subjects the option to receive or avoid treatment, can be extended by randomizing conditional on subjects’ treatment choices to answer further questions of interest while preserving statistical power. We apply this design to study how the gender of messengers for the #MeToo social movement conditions who receives the movement’s message and how they respond. Our results, from both convenience and nationally representative samples, suggest that #MeToo movement’s message reaches a wide audience with the intended effect. The potential for backlash in response to the message appears limited but more likely when this message is delivered by a woman.