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The most fundamental questions in international relations are: “Why do states go to war?” “How can interstate conflict be prevented or ameliorated?,” and “What are the pathways to greater international cooperation?” In considering these questions, the dominant paradigm in international relations, political realism, emphasizes the enduring propensity for conflict among self-interested states seeking their security in an “anarchic” international environment, that is, one where there is no central authority to protect states from each other or to guarantee their security. Hence, international cooperation is thought to be rare, fleeting, and tenuous – limited by enforcement problems and each state’s preference for larger relative gains in any potential bargain because of its systemic vulnerability (Morgenthau, 1949; Waltz, 1979). At the extreme, states find themselves in a security condition of mutual distrust that resembles a prisoner’s dilemma game. (See Box 3.1 in Chapter 3 for a description of various games.) Maintaining an equilibrium in the international system through a balance of power and limited cooperation are all that can be hoped for; a situation where war, large-scale violent conflict, is natural and merely “diplomacy by other means” (von Clausewitz, 1989). This is not to argue that international relations are in a constant state of war, rather that they exist within the shadow of war as a final arbiter.
Individuals with social anxiety disorder do poorly in residential treatment programs for the treatment of drug dependence. This is not surprising given the social nature of residential rehabilitation where group work and close social interactions are required.
Given the social nature of residential rehabilitation, we were interested in exploring whether we could address social anxiety symptoms prior to treatment entry and therefore enhance the likelihood that an individual would enter treatment and stay in treatment.
To conduct a randomised control trial to evaluate whether treatment of social anxiety symptoms prior to treatment entry improves treatment entry and retention.
Treatment seeking substance users (n = 105) completed intake assessment interviews for entry into a residential rehabilitation program. Assessment comprised the Mini International Neuropsychiatric interview (Mini), the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Participants were randomised to either a four-session social anxiety intervention or treatment as usual (which was to remain on the waiting list until treatment entry). A survival analysis was conducted to examine whether the intervention impacted on treatment retention.
The treatment did not significantly impact on treatment but the intervention group were significantly more likely to remain in treatment and this effect was only found in women.
For individuals with social anxiety disorder brief evidence based intervention focused on ameliorating social anxiety symptoms (e.g., cognitive behavioural treatment) may improve the retention in treatment. This effect appears to be gender specific.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Many international conflicts are recurrent, and many of these are characterized by periods of violence, including wars, that are hard to describe as planned products of rational decision-making. Analysis of these conflicts according to rational-choice international-relations theory or constructivist approaches has been less revealing than might have been hoped. We consider the possibility that emotive causes could better explain, or at least improve the explanation of, observed patterns. We offer three emotive models of recurrent conflict and we outline a method by which the reliability of emotive explanations derived from these models could be tested prospectively.
We quantified the prevalence of vitamin D status in 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children and identified the socio-economic and dietary predictors for status.
Cross-sectional, baseline data from a nutritional intervention study were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of being vitamin D deficient or insufficient with the reference being vitamin D sufficient.
Urban slum area of Mirpur field site, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2·00) and normal-weight (weight-for-age Z-score ≥−1·00) children aged 6–24 months.
Among 468 underweight children, 23·1 % were sufficient, 42·3 % insufficient, 31·2 % deficient and 3·4 % severely vitamin D deficient. Among 445 normal-weight children, 14·8 % were sufficient, 39·6 % insufficient and 40·0 % deficient and 5·6 % severely deficient. With adjusted multinominal regression analysis, risk factors (OR (95 % CI)) for vitamin D deficiency in underweight children were: older age group (18–24 months old; 2·9 (1·5–5·7)); measurement of vitamin D status during winter (3·0 (1·4–6·4)) and spring (6·9 (3·0–16·1)); and maternal education (≥6 years of institutional education; 2·2 (1·0–4·9)). In normal-weight children, older age group (3·6 (1·2–10·6)) and living in the richest quintile (3·7 (1·1–12·5)) were found to be significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency.
The study demonstrates a significant burden of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in both underweight and normal-weight children <2 years of age from an urban slum of Bangladesh. Identification of risk factors may help in mitigating the important burden in such children.
Siricids and their parasitoids were reared from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae)) trees infested by Sirex noctilio F. in central New York State. Sirex noctilio accounted for 94.3% of the siricid specimens emerging, totaling 1313 specimens from six trees, with a maximum of 495 from one tree. Of the individuals emerging per tree, 20.6 ± 5.2% were female. Two native siricids, Sirex nigricornis F. and S. edwardsii Brullè, also emerged from trees but in low numbers. Three hymenopteran parasitoid species that attack siricids emerged, totaling 21.8 ± 6.4% parasitism per tree. Ibalia leucospoides ensiger Norton (Ibaliidae) was by far the most abundant parasitoid, at 20.5 ± 6.3% parasitism per tree. The percentage of female S. noctilio emerging was positively correlated with wood diameter, whereas percent parasitism by I. l. ensiger was negatively correlated with wood diameter.
Policies of freer trade and greater economic openness became a hallmark of U.S. foreign economic policy after World War II. American policymakers came to accept that the improvement of economic conditions abroad correlated directly with prosperity at home. During that period, U.S. support for policies of economic openness assumed the compatibility of economic liberalism and national security.
We had studied the effects of hyperthermal (5.1eV) atomic oxygen (AO) on the structural characteristics of the silica layer and Si/SiOx interface formed by the oxidation of Si-single crystal by a variety of microcharacterization techniques. A laser detonation source was used to produce atomic oxygen with 5.1eV kinetic energy. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) demonstrated that the silica layer formed on Si(100) by atomic oxygen is thicker, more homogeneous, and less amorphous, compared to the oxide layer created by molecular oxygen (MO). High spatial resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) study confirmed that the Si/SiOx interface created by atomic oxygen is abrupt containing no suboxides as opposed to the broad interface with transitional states formed by molecular oxygen. SAED technique was used to observe sharper diffraction rings present in the diffraction pattern of Si(100) oxidized by reactive atomic oxygen as opposed to the diffused haloes present in the diffraction pattern of Si(100) oxidized by molecular oxygen. Radial Distribution Function (RDF) analyses were performed on the SAED patterns of Si(100) oxidized in atomic and molecular oxygen, indicating that a more ordered oxide is formed by atomic oxygen. Initial Fluctuation Electron Microscopy (FEM) results confirmed an increased medium range ordering in SiOx formed by atomic oxygen when compared to the non-regular arrangement present in the amorphous oxide formed by the oxidation of Si(100) in molecular oxygen.
We have investigated the effect of ion bombardment on the structure and hardness of thin coatings of TiN/NbN multilayered structures and monolithic films of both TiN and NbN. A radio frequency coil was used to generate an additional inductively coupled plasma between the substrate and the target enabling the sample to be bombarded by a high flux of relatively low energy ions under the appropriate conditions. It is shown that the effect of such bombardment in the case of the monolithic films is to reduce the porosity. This gave an increase in the hardness of both the TiN and the NbN films up to a power of 100 W (using a coil with a cross-sectional area of 2 × 103 mm2). Further increasing the power density led to a decrease in hardness. TiN/NbN multilayer coatings were made under the optimum deposition conditions for the monolithic materials and gave hardnesses greater than those observed in either TiN or NbN and approximately 50% greater than that predicted by a mixtures rule.
We have characterized the evolution of cavities during tensile creep of a Y2O3-hot isostatically pressed Si3N4, using precision density measurements, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cavities are bimodally distributed in size. Lenticular, 200 nm-size cavities are common, and lie primarily on two-grain boundaries. Irregularly shaped 500-1000 nm-size cavities are rare and lie at multi-grain junctions, but comprise approximately half of the total volume fraction of cavities. Although the material shows a continuous decrease in strain rate with strain, the cavity volume fraction evolves linearly with strain. Cavities account for approximately 85% of the total strain at any point during creep.
Spectra of photoelectrons and thermionic electrons emitted from silicon during pulsed laser irradiation at energy densities encompassing the thresholds for laser annealing and damage are reported. Annealing is accomplished with a 90-nsec pulse of 532-nm light, which may be accompanied by a 266-nm probe pulse. A cylindrical mirror analyzer is used for energy resolution of emitted electrons. Time-resolved reflectivity at 633 nm verifies attainment of the high-reflectivity annealing phase. Spectral widths and total yields imply a modest electron temperature (T < 3000 K) during annealing. The data suggest that the work function of the silicon (111) face may increase about 0.6 eV upon transition to the molten phase.
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