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This collection profiles understudied figures in the book and print trades of the seventeenth century. With an equal balance between women and men, it intervenes in the history of the trades, emphasising the broad range of material, cultural, and ideological work these people undertook. It offers a biographical introduction to each figure, placing them in their social, professional, and institutional settings. The collection considers varied print trade roles including that of the printer, publisher, paper-maker, and bookseller, as well as several specific trade networks and numerous textual forms. The biographies draw on extensive new archival research, with details of key sources for further study on each figure. Chronologically organised, this Element offers a primer both on numerous individual figures, and on the tribulations and innovations of the print trade in the century of revolution.
Travel can be fun, exciting, dull or boring. It can also be hard work; the word travel originates from travail meaning painfully difficult or laborious effort. However, as Latour (1997) argues, the physical effort of moving has been smoothed out by the transport system, and this impacts on the journey experience and brings about the possibility of other activities taking place while travelling. Given that globally billions of people spend a significant part of their life travelling for a multitude of reasons, the impact of journey experience on travellers’ ability to use their time for personal and work activities and influence their overall wellbeing should be of concern to travel providers and policy makers.
The experiences discussed in this chapter are rooted in the prosaic journeys of commuting, work-related travel, or accessing other personal activities, rather than specific leisure journeys (for example, a steam train trip). Specifically, we are concerned with how the journey experience is shaped through the interaction between travellers and their mode of transport, other objects and technologies they encounter on their journey, and other travellers. (And here we focus in particular on the ‘powered’ modes – see, for example, Middleton 2018 and Simpson 2017, 2018 on the journey experiences of walkers and cyclists.) Our approach emphasises the idea that travellers ‘craft’ their experience in response to the travel context (for example, bus passenger or car driver) and the ‘tools’ they have to hand (for example, books, phone, or laptop). The crafted journey experience is not just the concern of the ‘equipped’ individual traveller, however, particularly on public transport systems. It has a wider political and commercial concern in terms of transport planning, provision, management and investment, including infrastructure and vehicle design, engineering and innovation, as these all impact on the travel environment and thus travellers’ experiences and time use. For example, UK digital policy making at the time of writing is concerned with delivering 5G along key transport networks to offer continuous digital connectivity, while at the same time ministers are pushing Train Operating Companies (TOCs) to offer free Wi-Fi to rail passengers (Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and HM Treasury 2017).
Herbicides have been a primary means of managing undesirable brush on grazing lands across the southwestern United States for decades. Continued encroachment of honey mesquite and huisache on grazing lands warrants evaluation of treatment life and economics of current and experimental treatments. Treatment life is defined as the time between treatment application and when canopy cover of undesirable brush returns to a competitive level with native forage grasses (i.e., 25% canopy cover for mesquite and 30% canopy cover for huisache). Treatment life of industry-standard herbicides was compared with that of aminocyclopyrachlor plus triclopyr amine (ACP+T) from 10 broadcast-applied honey mesquite and five broadcast-applied huisache trials established from 2007 through 2013 across Texas. On average, the treatment life of industry standard treatments (IST) for huisache was 3 yr. In comparison, huisache canopy cover was only 2.5% in plots treated with ACP+T 3 yr after treatment. The average treatment life of IST for honey mesquite was 8.6 yr, whereas plots treated with ACP+T had just 2% mesquite canopy cover at that time. Improved treatment life of ACP+T compared with IST life was due to higher mortality resulting in more consistent brush canopy reduction. The net present values (NPVs) of ACP+T and IST for both huisache and mesquite were similar until the treatment life of the IST application was reached (3 yr for huisache and 8.6 yr for honey mesquite). At that point, NPVs of the programs diverged as a result of brush competition with desirable forage grasses and additional input costs associated with theoretical follow-up IST necessary to maintain optimum livestock forage production. The ACP+T treatments did not warrant a sequential application over the 12-yr analysis for huisache or 20-yr analysis for honey mesquite that this research covered. These results indicate ACP+T provides cost-effective, long-term control of honey mesquite and huisache.
The Mosbeck Site is in the southern part of the Lake Agassiz basin in northwestern Minnesota. The stratigraphic section at the site consists of seven lithologic units, which are from bottom to top (A) unsorted, pebbly, sandy, silty clay, (B) coarse gravel, (C) silty sand, (D) peat, (E) fine sand, (F) interbedded sand and gravel, and (G) unbedded dirty gravel. The lower few centimeters of unit E are unoxidized and contain black spruce and tamarack driftwood, which has been radiocarbon dated at 9940 ± 160 BP (I-3880). Units C-E contain numerous, well-preserved insect and mollusk remains. These fossils have been compared with modern species, and at least 76 insect and 15 mollusk taxa are present. Assuming that their ecological tolerances have changed little in the past 10,000 years, they provide valuable information about the environment of Lake Agassiz. Few of the insects are now found in the region, indicating that the environment has changed. With few exceptions the species present indicate that the climate and vegetation at the time were similar to the present-day climate and vegetation of southeastern Manitoba.
The lithology and faunal contents of the sediment are interpreted as follows. Unit A is Late Wisconsinan glacial sediment. Unit B is a lag concentrate formed by wave action during a regressive phase of Lake Agassiz. Unit C is the sediment of a small body of water that formed when the level of Lake Agassiz had dropped below the site. The banks were covered with a spruce forest. Open water gave way to swampy conditions, and unit D was formed. Both units C and D were deposited during the low-water Moorhead Phase of Lake Agassiz. Units E and F are shoreline sediment deposited as the lake level rose, drowning the vegetation. Unit G is modern ditch spoil.
The nervous system is a major target of HIV-1 infection and site of many complications of AIDS. Most of our knowledge pertaining to the range and frequency of neuropathology in HIV-1/AIDS is from large centres outside Canada in different social and health care settings. The goal of the present study was to describe HIV-1/AIDS-associated neuropathology before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy at a Canadian teaching centre.
The records of the Department of Pathology, London Health Sciences Centre were electronically searched for cases of HIV-1/AIDS that came to postmortem examination since 1985. The clinical records and pathological materials were reviewed.
Sixteen autopsies of HIV-1/AIDS were identified. All patients were male. Fourteen contracted HIV-1 through high risk homosexual activity, one through the transfusion of blood products and one through intravenous drug use. Three patients (19%) had pre-mortem evidence of HIV-1 associated dementia. At autopsy, 12 of the 16 cases had neuropathological findings and the most common diagnoses were HIV-1 encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, toxoplasmosis, and primary CNS lymphoma.
High risk homosexual activity was a more prominent factor in acquiring AIDS in cases coming to postmortem examination compared with previous reports from most larger urban centres outside Canada where injection drug use and high risk heterosexual activity factored prominently. The incidence of HIV-1 associated dementia was similar to that reported previously. This study confirms the heavy burden and wide spectrum of disease experienced by the nervous system in HIV-1/AIDS.
Antidepressants are frequently associated with treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction (TESD). Vortioxetine, which was approved for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), has a receptor profile that suggests limited impact on sexual functioning.
Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) patient-level data were pooled from 7 short-term vortioxetine trials (6 in MDD, 1 in generalized anxiety disorder) and analyzed for incidence of TESD at any post-baseline visit in patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline (defined as ASEX total score ≥19; individual ASEX item score ≥5; or a score ≥4 on any 3 ASEX items). The primary objective was to confirm the non-inferiority of vortioxetine 5–20 mg/day to placebo on the incidence of TESD. Comparisons were based on the common risk difference (95% confidence interval). Additional analyses compared vortioxetine to duloxetine and duloxetine to placebo. A sensitivity analysis, defined as TESD at 2 consecutive post-baseline visits, was conducted.
TESD incidence, relative to placebo, generally increased with vortioxetine dose with vortioxetine 5 mg non-inferior to placebo. Vortioxetine 10, 15, and 20 mg did not meet the non-inferiority criterion, but no dose had a significantly higher risk of developing TESD versus placebo. Changes in ASEX individual item scores supported the similarity of vortioxetine doses to placebo. Significantly higher TESD risk occurred with duloxetine 60 mg/day versus placebo and versus vortioxetine 5 or 10 mg. The sensitivity analysis was generally consistent with the primary analysis. Rates of spontaneously reported sexual adverse events were low.
Vortioxetine was associated with rates of TESD that were not significantly different from placebo in short-term clinical trials.
Lithium titanate spinel (Li4Ti5O12, or LTS) has received an increasing level of attention as a nanopowder lithium-ion battery anode. Nanopowder electrodes may provide a higher energy density than currently available. Furthermore, the surface of the spinel nanopowder has been studied in air, under vacuum, and at varying temperatures with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy revealing surface hydroxyls, carbonates and water. Applying a TiN thin film, a film that is both conducting and chemically inert to harmful reactions with the solvent/electrolyte, by atomic layer deposition (ALD) may enhance battery cycle life. A 200-layer film was deposited at 500 °C. We have characterized the influence of a TiN thin film on Li-ion battery performance. Total nitrogen content and transmission electron microscopy were used to verify the presence of nitrogen and formation of a thin film, respectively, on LTS. Modifying the powder with an ALD thin film coating produced an anode material with a voltage profile that demonstrated longer charge maintenance with shorter transient periods. It also held a more consistent charge capacity over varying discharge rates in coin cell testing than unmodified LTS.
It was demonstrated, on general thermodynamic grounds, that, in non-hydrostatically stressed elastic systems, phase and grain interfaces undergo morphological destabilization due to different mechanisms of “mass rearrangement”. Destabilization of free surfaces due to the combined action of mass rearrangement in the presence of electrostatic field has been well known since the end of the 19th century. Currently, morphological instabilities of thin solid films with electro-mechanical interactions have found various applications in physics and engineering. In this paper, we investigate the combined effects of the stress driven rearrangement instabilities and the destabilization due to the electro-mechanical interactions. The paper presents relevant results of theoretical studies for ferroelectric thin films. Theoretical analysis involves highly nonlinear equations allowing analytical methods only for the initial stage of unstable growth. At present, we are unable to explore analytically the most important, deeply nonlinear regimes of growth. To avoid this difficulty, we developed numerical tools facilitating the process of solving and interpreting the results by means of visualization of developing morphologies.
In the more than two hundred years since his death, Cook's reputation has been much discussed, opinion ranging from celebration of his achievement to more subjective assessments of the long-term implications of his voyages in those countries of the Pacific which he visited. The thirteen essays in this book, grouped in four sections, continue the debate. 'The Years in England' cover Cook's Whitby background and the part played by the Royal Society in the Pacific ventures of the period. 'The Pacific Voyages' investigates the clash between the Endeavour's crew and the Aborigines on the banks of the Endeavour River, the process by which Cook and his crews became 'Polynesianised', Cook's visit to the Hawaiian Islands, and his call at Nootka Sound, both on his final voyage. 'Captain Cook and his Contemporaries' views other European explorers in the Pacific, and concludes with an analysis of Russian attitudes towards Cook. 'The Legacy of Captain Cook' compares Cook's death on Hawaii with the later killing of a missionary on Eromanga, examines fluctuations in Cook's reputation, and describes life on board the replica of the Endeavour. GLYNDWR WILLIAMS is Emeritus Professor of History, Queen Mary & Westfield College, University of London. His many books include an edition of Captain Cook's Voyages, 1768-79, from the official accounts derived from Cook's journals.
The conference on ‘Captain Cook: Explorations and Reassessments’ held at the University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, on 11–14 September 2002, was the sixth International Conference sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Board Centre for North-East England History. In one way it was an appropriate commemoration of local allegiances, for James Cook was born at Marton-in-Cleveland, only five miles from the conference hall, and his earliest experience of the sea and ships was at Whitby, less than thirty miles away. In another way the conference represented world history, for as with any meeting on Cook and his voyages the subject-matter of many of the papers concerned the Pacific. This association between the local and the global, between the Yorkshire background of the young Cook, and the ocean crisscrossed by the famous navigator, was a prominent feature of the conference. It was held at a time when Cook continued to attract both scholarly and popular attention. In those countries of the Pacific visited by Cook the current debate tends to concentrate on the larger implications of Cook's voyages, and the extent to which the individual explorer could be held responsible for the actions of his successors. In Britain there is perhaps less questioning of Cook's role and more celebration of his achievements. A six-part BBC 2 television series on Cook's first Pacific voyage was shown just before the conference began; in the weeks immediately after the conference Radio 4 broadcast a three-part series on Cook's voyages. The full-size replica of the Endeavour had reached Britain earlier in the year, while the summer months saw the publication of several books on Cook and his voyages. It was, then, a timely moment for a conference whose aim was to assess the present standing of Captain Cook as one of the leading figures in eighteenth-century history.
The chapters presented in this volume represent a range of disciplines and approaches. They have been grouped into four sections. Part I, ‘The Years in England’, opens with Rosalin Barker's chapter describing Whitby in the eighteenth century, and the environment that helped to provide the young James Cook with a good scientific and mathematical education as well as a practical training in seamanship. Richard Allen follows this by investigating the implications of Cook's apprenticeship with the Quaker shipowners, John and Henry Walker.