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Contemporary proof assistants such as Coq require that recursive functions be terminating and corecursive functions be productive to maintain logical consistency of their type theories, and some ensure these properties using syntactic checks. However, being syntactic, they are inherently delicate and restrictive, preventing users from easily writing obviously terminating or productive functions at their whim.
Meanwhile, there exist many sized type theories that perform type-based termination and productivity checking, including theories based on the Calculus of (Co)Inductive Constructions (CIC), the core calculus underlying Coq. These theories are more robust and compositional in comparison. So why haven’t they been adapted to Coq?
In this paper, we venture to answer this question with CIC
, a sized type theory based on CIC. It extends past work on sized types in CIC with additional Coq features such as global and local definitions. We also present a corresponding size inference algorithm and implement it within Coq’s kernel; for maximal backward compatibility with existing Coq developments, it requires no additional annotations from the user.
In our evaluation of the implementation, we find a severe performance degradation when compiling parts of the Coq standard library, inherent to the algorithm itself. We conclude that if we wish to maintain backward compatibility, using size inference as a replacement for syntactic checking is impractical in terms of performance.
Many programmers use dependently typed languages such as Coq to machine-verify high-assurance software. However, existing compilers for these languages provide no guarantees after compiling, nor when linking after compilation. Type-preserving compilers preserve guarantees encoded in types and then use type checking to verify compiled code and ensure safe linking with external code. Unfortunately, standard compiler passes do not preserve the dependent typing of commonly used (intensional) type theories. This is because assumptions valid in simpler type systems no longer hold, and intensional dependent type systems are highly sensitive to syntactic changes, including compilation. We develop an A-normal form (ANF) translation with join-point optimization—a standard translation for making control flow explicit in functional languages—from the Extended Calculus of Constructions (ECC) with dependent elimination of booleans and natural numbers (a representative subset of Coq). Our dependently typed target language has equality reflection, allowing the type system to encode semantic equality of terms. This is key to proving type preservation and correctness of separate compilation for this translation. This is the first ANF translation for dependent types. Unlike related translations, it supports the universe hierarchy, and does not rely on parametricity or impredicativity.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.