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This study examined parental depression and parental reflective functioning (PRF) as predictors of parental proficiency in relational savoring (RS), the association between RS proficiency and a marker of children’s physiological self-regulation, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), during a stressor, and indirect effects of parental depression and PRF on children’s RSA via parents’ RS. At Time 1 (T1), parents of 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 139) reported on their depressive symptoms and completed a parenting interview, coded for PRF. After 1.5 years (Time 2; T2), parents savored a positive relational memory that involved their children, which was coded for savoring proficiency. Children’s RSA was measured during a stressful task (a series of impossible puzzles). Depressive symptoms (inversely) and PRF (positively) were associated with RS proficiency. Higher parental RS proficiency was associated with children’s higher mean levels of RSA during the stressor. Indirect effects models supported that T2 RS proficiency mediated the negative association between parental T1 depressive symptoms and children’s T2 RSA, and between T1 PRF and children’s T2 RSA. We discuss these findings in terms of implications for parents’ emotion regulation, children’s emotion regulation, children’s mental health, and intervention.
This article traces how Ottoman interpretations and uses of Islamic law adapted to deal with non-Muslim rebellions between roughly 1769 and 1830. Drawing on Ottoman fatwas (legal opinions), bureaucratic registers, sultanic decrees, and chronicles, as well as British diplomatic records, it argues that the Ottoman state actively reinterpreted its commitment to the Islamic legal tradition in order to forge the law of rebellion into a weapon against both foreign and domestic enemies. The Ottomans first used declarations of rebellion to mobilize military forces against its imperial rivals, then to discourage and suppress domestic dissent, and finally to deny rebels’ sovereignty under international law. In doing so, the Sublime Porte effectively redefined sovereignty by interleaving Islamic and international concepts. The article places this development in global context, arguing that it resembled legal moves made by Atlantic states as they dealt with the Age of Revolutions. At the same time, this story shows how the Ottoman state’s commitment to Islamic law, and its employment of officially authorized scholars to interpret that law, could both license and constrain state policy. The Islamic legal tradition was flexible, but also meaningful. Interpretation occurred at different levels, and was done by different actors. While the state had significant latitude, it faced limits arising from the substance of the law and the process of interpretation itself.
Background:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and is often associated with increased medical costs and longer lengths of hospital stay. Previous studies have highlighted that hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at an increased risk for CDI of up to 33% from other hospitalized patients. Studies have also supported the prevalence of asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile among HSCT patients. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is a significant risk factor for transmission of infection to other patients developing hospital onset (HO-CDI). Therefore, targeted infection prevention efforts, such as early identification of patients with community-onset (CO-CDI) and patients with asymptomatic colonization with CDI in HSCT patients, may be effective in reducing the occurrence of HO-CDI. We discuss the CDI admission screening protocol in Emory University Hospital’s (EUH) bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit. Methods: As part of an infection prevention initiative, a CDI screening protocol was implemented in December 2018 for all patients that admitted to the EUH inpatient BMT unit. Upon admission, patients were screened for CO-CDI symptoms, specifically loose or unformed stools. A C. difficile toxin assay PCR would be collected within the first 3 calendar days of admission for all patients screened. Patients with symptoms were placed on isolation precautions pending results of the C. difficile toxin assay. If a patient had a positive C. difficile toxin assay result, isolation precautions would be maintained for the duration of hospitalization regardless of symptoms. Patients who are were unable to produce a stool specimen on the first 3 days of admission were excluded from the screening protocol. Patients with positive C. difficile toxin assay PCRs were classified as CO-CDI and were treated. Results: Since implementation of the CDI screening protocol, 109 CDI events were identified from January 2019 to October 2019. Moreover, 79% of positive C. difficile toxin assays were collected within the first 3 calendar days of admission. HO-CDI has decreased from 78% in 2018 to 21% during the designated time frame. Conclusions: CDI screening upon admission of BMT populations has shown a decrease among HO-CDI by early identification of CO-CDI and CO asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile. This early identification has allowed rapid implementation of infection preventions precautions, thus reducing risk of unit-based transmission.
Simulations are playing an increasingly important role in paleobiology. When designing a simulation study, many decisions have to be made and common challenges will be encountered along the way. Here, we outline seven rules for executing a good simulation study. We cover topics including the choice of study question, the empirical data used as a basis for the study, statistical and methodological concerns, how to validate the study, and how to ensure it can be reproduced and extended by others. We hope that these rules and the accompanying examples will guide paleobiologists when using simulation tools to address fundamental questions about the evolution of life.
Almost all set theorists pay at least lip service to Cantor’s definition of a set as a collection of many things into one whole; but empty and singleton sets do not fit with it. Adapting Dana Scott’s axiomatization of the cumulative theory of types, we present a ‘Cantorian’ system which excludes these anomalous sets. We investigate the consequences of their omission, examining their claim to a place on grounds of convenience, and asking whether their absence is an obstacle to the theory’s ability to represent ordered pairs or to support the arithmetization of analysis or the development of the theory of cardinals and ordinals.
Cognate facilitation and cognate interference in word production have been elicited separately, in different paradigms. In our experiment, we created conditions for facilitation and interference to occur sequentially, and identified the levels at which the two processes manifested. Bilinguals translated cognates and noncognates from L2 to L1 and typed the translations. Response-onset latencies were shorter for cognates (cognate-facilitation) but execution latencies were longer, and cross-language orthographic errors were more frequent for cognates than for noncognates (cognate-interference). Facilitation at onset followed by interference during word execution suggests that the language-selection mechanism operated efficiently at the lexical level but inefficiently at the sublexical level. It also suggests that language selection is not an event with irreversible outcome, but selection at one level may not guarantee language-selectivity at subsequent levels. We propose that a model of bilingual language production that specifies multiple language-selection processes at multiple loci of selection can accommodate this phenomenon.
Writing for his fellow military officers in early 1903, United States Army Major C.J. Crane reflected on the recent Philippine–American War. The bloody struggle to suppress an insurgency in the Philippines after the United States had annexed them from Spain in 1899 had officially concluded the previous July. The war had been accompanied by fierce racist sentiments among Americans, and in keeping with these, Crane described his foes as “the most treacherous people in the world.” But Crane's discussion drew as much on concepts of law as it did on race. The average American officer, Crane argued, had “remembered all the time that he was struggling with an enemy who was not entitled to the privileges usually granted prisoners of war,” and could be summarily executed, without benefit of “court-martial or other regular tribunal.” If anything, the Americans had been too generous. “Many [American] participants in the struggle,” he maintained, “have failed to fully understand that we were practically fighting an Asiatic nation in arms and almost every man a soldier in disguise and a violator” of the laws of war. But what did those laws mean to the United States during the conflict, and what does this indicate about the broader history of international law's relationship to empire?
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown.
To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports.
Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years.
There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651). Despite high mood stabiliser use (22.4%), 2-year incident mania at 1.1% is higher than the general population; 0.3% for first episode (standardised incident ratio (SIR) = 41.5, or 52.7 excluding Down syndrome). For any bipolar episode the SIR was 2.0 (or 2.5 excluding Down syndrome). Depression incidence at 7.2% is similar to the general population (SIR = 1.2), suggesting more enduring/undertreatment given the higher prevalence. Problem behaviours (odds ratio (OR) = 2.3) and life events (OR = 1.3) predict incident unipolar depression.
Depression needs improved treatment. Mania has received remarkably little attention in this population, despite high prevalence and incidence (similar to schizophrenia), and given the importance of clinician awareness for accurate differential diagnosis from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and problem behaviours.
For mammals today, mountains are diverse ecosystems globally, yet the strong relationship between species richness and topographic complexity is not a persistent feature of the fossil record. Based on fossil-occurrence data, diversity and diversification rates in the intermontane western North America varied through time, increasing significantly during an interval of global warming and regional intensification of tectonic activity from 18 to 14 Ma. However, our ability to infer origination and extinction rates reliably from the fossil record is affected by variation in preservation history. To investigate the influence of preservation on estimates of diversification rates, I simulated fossil records under four alternative diversification hypotheses and six preservation scenarios. Diversification hypotheses included tectonically controlled speciation pulses, while preservation scenarios were based on common trends (e.g., increasing rock record toward the present) or derived from fossil occurrences and the continental rock record. For each scenario, I estimated origination, extinction, and diversification rates using three standard methods—per capita, three-timer, and capture–mark–recapture (CMR) metrics—and evaluated the ability of the simulated fossil records to accurately recover the underlying diversification dynamics. Despite variable and low preservation probabilities, simulated fossil records retained the signal of true rates in several of the scenarios. The three metrics did not exhibit similar behavior under each preservation scenario: while three-timer and CMR metrics produced more accurate rate estimates, per capita rates tended to better reproduce true shifts in origination rates. All metrics suffered from spurious peaks in origination and extinction rates when highly volatile preservation impacted the simulated record. Results from these simulations indicate that elevated diversification rates in relation to tectonic activity during the middle Miocene are likely to be evident in the fossil record, even if preservation in the North American fossil record was variable. Input from the past is necessary to evaluate the ultimate mechanisms underlying speciation and extinction dynamics.
This article analyzes the changing treaty law and practice governing the Ottoman state's attitude toward the subjects of its most important neighbor and most inveterate rival: the Russian Empire. The two empires were linked by both migration and unfreedom; alongside Russian slaves forcibly brought to the sultans’ domains, many others came as fugitives from serfdom and conscription. But beginning in the late 18th century, the Ottoman Empire reinforced Russian serfdom and conscription by agreeing to return fugitives, even as the same treaties undermined Ottoman forced labor by mandating the return of Russian slaves. Drawing extensively on Ottoman archival sources, this article argues that the resulting interimperial regulations on unfreedom and movement hardened the empires’ human and geographic boundaries, so that for many Russian subjects, foreign subjecthood under treaty law was not a privilege, but a liability.
The passage of Britain’s 1940 Colonial Development and Welfare Act increased the levels of funding for social welfare projects such as housing in its colonies and mandates. This state of the archives article provides an overview of holdings on African housing construction in Dar es Salaam found in the British and Tanzania National Archives. It highlights archival records that outline housing research, official development plans, proposed housing schemes, and the actual results of these schemes. It also discusses some unexpectedly relevant files that were found by broadening search terms.