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Teaching Secondary History provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of teaching History to years 7–12 in Australian schools. Engaging directly with the Australian Curriculum, this text introduces pre-service teachers to the discipline of History. It builds on students' historical knowledge, thinking and skills and offers practical guidance on how to construct well-rounded History lessons for students. From inquiry strategies and teacher- and student-centred practice, to embedding the cross-curriculum priorities in planning and assessment, this text supports the learning and development of pre-service History teachers by connecting the 'big ideas' of teaching with the nuance of History content. Each chapter features short-answer and Pause and think questions to enhance understanding of key concepts, Bringing it together review questions to consolidate learning, classroom scenarios, examples of classroom work and a range of information boxes to connect students to additional material.
Emerging research suggests that death anxiety is a transdiagnostic construct, which may underpin a number of mental illnesses. Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been found to be the most effective treatment for death anxiety, no self-guided treatments for this construct exist at present. Furthermore, there is a growing need for accessible, scalable and cost-effective psychological treatments. To address these gaps, we created Overcome Death Anxiety (ODA), an online CBT-based programme which specifically targets fears of death. ODA was designed to be a fully automated, standalone, yet individualised online treatment. The present study outlines the development and structure of this programme using responses from four users to illustrate feasibility. Research is needed to examine the efficacy and usability of ODA with a larger clinical sample.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia is a growing problem in the Great Plains region of Canada and the United States (U.S.). Resistance to up to four herbicide sites of action, including photosystem II inhibitors, acetolactate synthase inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitor glyphosate have been reported in many areas of this region. Despite being present in the U.S. since 1993/1994, auxinic-HR kochia is a recent and growing phenomenon in Canada. This study was designed to characterize (a) the level of resistance and (b) patterns of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in 12 putative auxinic-HR kochia populations from western Canada. The incidence of dicamba-resistant individuals ranged among populations from 0% to 85%, while fluroxypyr-resistant individuals ranged from 0% to 45%. In whole-plant dose-response bioassays, the populations exhibited up to 6.5-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 51.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr based on visible injury 28 days after application. Based on plant survival estimates, the populations exhibited up to 3.7-fold resistance to dicamba and up to 72.5-fold resistance to fluroxypyr. Multiple patterns of synthetic auxin resistance were observed, where one population from Cypress County, Alberta was resistant to dicamba but not fluroxypyr, while another from Rocky View County, Alberta was resistant to fluroxypyr but not dicamba based on single-dose population screening and dose-response bioassays. These results suggest that multiple mechanisms may confer resistance to dicamba and/or fluroxypyr in Canadian kochia populations. Further research is warranted to determine these mechanisms. Farmers are urged to adopt proactive non-chemical weed management tools in an effort to preserve efficacy of the remaining herbicide options available for control of HR kochia.
Pain, fatigue and anxiety are common features of fibromyalgia and ME/CFS and significantly impact quality of life. Aetiology is poorly defined but dysfunctional inflammatory, autonomic and interoceptive (sensing of internal bodily signals) processes are implicated.
To investigate how altered interoception relates to baseline expression of pain, fatigue and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia and ME/CFS and in response to an inflammatory challenge.
Sixty-five patients with fibromyalgia and/or ME/CFS diagnosis and 26 matched controls underwent baseline assessment: pressure-pain thresholds and self-report questionnaires assessing pain, fatigue and anxiety severity. Participants received injections of typhoid (inflammatory challenge) or saline (placebo) in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design, before completing heartbeat tracking tasks. Three interoception dimensions were examined: subjective sensibility, objective accuracy and metacognitive awareness. Interoceptive trait prediction error was calculated as discrepancy between accuracy and sensibility.
Patients with fibromyalgia and ME/CFS had significantly higher interoceptive sensibility and trait prediction error, despite no differences in interoceptive accuracy. Interoceptive sensibility and trait prediction error correlated with all self-report pain, fatigue and anxiety measures, and with lower pain thresholds. Anxiety mediated the positive-predictive relationships between pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Widespread Pain Index), fatigue impact and interoceptive sensibility. After inflammatory challenge, metacognitive awareness correlated with baseline self-reported symptom measures and lower pain thresholds.
This is the first study investigating interoceptive dimensions in patients with fibromyalgia and ME/CFS, which were found to be dysregulated and differentially influenced by inflammatory mechanisms. Interoceptive processes may represent a new potential target for diagnostic and therapeutic investigation in these poorly understood conditions.
This chapter considers the growth performance of western European countries since 1870, and relates this to the degree of openness. A theoretical explanation of why convergence is predicted by economic theory is presented and some statistics are presented on GDP per capita and the contributions of various factors to growth performance. Three periods are considered: 1870 until World War I; the interwar period; and after World War II. The first and the last are associated with globalization and convergence, whereas the interwar period witnessed increasing levels of economic isolation and lack of convergence. All western European countries are much richer today than they were in 1870, but some countries have performed much more strongly than others. Over- and underperforming countries, whose growth performances were markedly different from what might be expected from their initial levels of income, are highlighted, and possible interpretations suggested.
In the context of increasing recognition of the role of nature in well-being, but limited evidence for specific patient groups, we describe a mixed-methods evaluation of a 10-week green care intervention (a woodland group) for 18- to 30-year-olds who had experienced a first episode of psychosis. Data were collected using the Questionnaire on the Process of Recovery (QPR), semi-structured service evaluation questionnaires, the NHS Friends and Family Test (FFT), and focus group analysis.
All participants present at week 10 (n = 5) would recommend this group to others; 4/8 participants showed reliable improvement on QPR outcome measures. Thematic analysis identified themes of connection with nature and others, development of a sense of well-being and ‘peacefulness’ and new perspectives on psychotic experience.
This small retrospective evaluation describes patient-reported benefits, feasibility and acceptability of green care interventions within early intervention in psychosis services (EIS).
To summarise the tolerability profile following an infusion of methylene blue (MB), including subjective effects on mood and energy levels and haemodynamic changes, in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (BPAD).
BPAD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired cellular energy production. MB is proposed to enhance mitochondria function via rerouting electrons and intracellular reduction of oxidative stress, and is therefore a candidate compound for use as a probe to reveal alterations in brain oxygen metabolism in vivo in patients with BPAD. Although there are reports of MB used as treatment for BPAD, the tolerability and subjective effects of a single IV dose in this population has not yet been defined.
Using a single-blind, randomised, within-subject design, 7 patients with BPAD on stable pharmacological treatment and 6 healthy controls (HCs) received an infusion of 0.5mg/kg MB and a placebo glucose solution one week apart. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) assessing ‘Mood’ and ‘Energy’ levels were completed by 11 participants, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and any subsequent side effects were recorded before and after infusions.
A significant, albeit very small, effect of MB on ‘Mood’ levels relative to placebo was demonstrated, independent of groups (change relative to baseline: 5.5% ± 11 increase (placebo) vs -1.6 % ± 9.5 reduction (MB); p = 0.027). Although there was no effect of MB on energy levels in either group, there appeared to be a trend for a general group difference in ‘Energy’ levels across all trials, with lower ratings in BPAD patients (p = 0.058).
There was a trend for significantly lower post-infusion HR relative to pre-infusion (-6.4 ± 8.8 bpm, p = 0.07. Diastolic BP was higher (3.0 ± 7.8mmHg, p = 0.039). These effects were independent of groups and drug. The most common side effect with MB was mild/moderate pain at infusion site (n = 10/13), resolving within median 32.5 minutes (IQR 6-102), and discoloured urine in 7/13 subjects lasting median 44.5 hours (IQR 36-59). No difference in frequency of side effects reported between groups.
Although limited by small sample size, this tolerability analysis demonstrates a acceptable profile of effects of MB on subjective ratings and blood pressure, in both BPAD and HCs. Common side effects of discoloured urine and pain at infusion site are in line with previous reports in the literature. We observed a small effect of MB on mood ratings which could be related to the discomfort experienced during infusion.
Recognition of the essential role of nature-based activities for general wellbeing is expanding. Previous evaluation of nature-based activities has shown that those with greater mental health needs may benefit proportionally more compared to the general population. Currently, there is limited evidence of the benefits of green care for those with severe and enduring mental illness, including psychosis.
We aim to establish benefits and difficulties encountered during a 10-session green care programme for 18-30 year olds who have experienced first episode of psychosis (FEP) using a mixed methods approach.
This was a service evaluation of the Woodland Group, run by Circle of Life Rediscovery (CLR) and commissioned by Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust in Autumn 2019 for 10 half-day sessions. All participants were aged 18–30 years, referred from Early Intervention in Psychosis service and had experienced FEP. Patients were supported by EIS staff with a ratio of at least 3:1. Sessions consisted of a welcome and agenda setting, ice-breaking activity, core nature-based activity (such as roasting chestnuts, maintaining the woodland area) and a ‘sense meditation’.
Quantitative data for this evaluation were collected through routinely collected 15-item Questionnaire on the Process of Recovery (QPR), and a semi-structured intervention experience questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected via a focus group within the final session of the Woodlands Group. Thematic analysis was performed by the three co-authors.
Session attendance ranged between 3-15. 4/8 patients showed reliable improvement on QPR outcome measures, 1 showed deterioration and 3 showed no change. Mean QPR scores showed modest increase from average 3.4 (week 1) to 3.8 (week 10). 100% of respondents would recommend this group to others. Thematic analysis identified themes of connection with nature and others, development of a sense of wellbeing and ‘peacefulness’ and new perspectives on psychotic experience.
This small, retrospective evaluation is the first to investigate green care interventions for young people experiencing FEP. Our results reflect the positive informal feedback from participants and supporting staff following attendance at the Woodlands Group. Limitations include small sample size, incomplete data, and reliance on patient-reported outcomes. These findings show promise for green care activities within EIS and represents a sustainable intervention in mental health care.
This study aimed to investigate general factors associated with prognosis regardless of the type of treatment received, for adults with depression in primary care.
We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central (inception to 12/01/2020) for RCTs that included the most commonly used comprehensive measure of depressive and anxiety disorder symptoms and diagnoses, in primary care depression RCTs (the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule: CIS-R). Two-stage random-effects meta-analyses were conducted.
Twelve (n = 6024) of thirteen eligible studies (n = 6175) provided individual patient data. There was a 31% (95%CI: 25 to 37) difference in depressive symptoms at 3–4 months per standard deviation increase in baseline depressive symptoms. Four additional factors: the duration of anxiety; duration of depression; comorbid panic disorder; and a history of antidepressant treatment were also independently associated with poorer prognosis. There was evidence that the difference in prognosis when these factors were combined could be of clinical importance. Adding these variables improved the amount of variance explained in 3–4 month depressive symptoms from 16% using depressive symptom severity alone to 27%. Risk of bias (assessed with QUIPS) was low in all studies and quality (assessed with GRADE) was high. Sensitivity analyses did not alter our conclusions.
When adults seek treatment for depression clinicians should routinely assess for the duration of anxiety, duration of depression, comorbid panic disorder, and a history of antidepressant treatment alongside depressive symptom severity. This could provide clinicians and patients with useful and desired information to elucidate prognosis and aid the clinical management of depression.
Incremental prediction of aggression from callous–unemotional (CU) traits is well established, but cross-cultural replication and studies of young children are needed. Little is understood about the contribution of CU traits in children who are already aggressive. We addressed these issues in prospective studies in the United Kingdom and Colombia. In a UK epidemiological cohort, CU traits and aggression were assessed at age 3.5 years, and aggression at 5.0 years by mothers (N = 687) and partners (N = 397). In a Colombian general population sample, CU traits were assessed at age 3.5 years and aggression at 3.5 and 5.0 years by mother report (N = 220). Analyses consistently showed prediction of age-5.0 aggression by age-3.5 CU traits controlling for age-3.5 aggression. Associations between age-3.5 CU traits and age-5.0 aggression were moderated by aggression at 3.5 years, with UK interaction terms, same informant, β = .07 p = .014 cross-informant, β = .14 p = .002, and in Colombia, β = .09 p = .128. The interactions arose from stronger associations between CU traits and later aggression in those already aggressive. Our findings with preschoolers replicated across culturally diverse settings imply a major role for CU traits in the maintenance and amplification of already established aggression, and cast doubt on their contribution to its origins.
When Hurricane Harvey struck the coastline of Texas in 2017, it caused 88 fatalities and over US $125 billion in damage, along with increased emergency department visits in Houston and in cities receiving hurricane evacuees, such as the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex (DFW).
This study explored demographic indicators of vulnerability for patients from the Hurricane Harvey impact area who sought medical care in Houston and in DFW. The objectives were to characterize the vulnerability of affected populations presenting locally, as well as those presenting away from home, and to determine whether more vulnerable communities were more likely to seek medical care locally or elsewhere.
We used syndromic surveillance data alongside the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Social Vulnerability Index to calculate the percentage of patients seeking care locally by zip code tabulation area. We used this variable to fit a spatial lag regression model, controlling for population density and flood extent.
Communities with more patients presenting for medical care locally were significantly clustered and tended to have greater socioeconomic vulnerability, lower household composition vulnerability, and more extensive flooding.
These findings suggest that populations remaining in place during a natural disaster event may have needs related to income, education, and employment, while evacuees may have more needs related to age, disability, and single-parent household status.
This paper challenges the reading of Derridean deconstruction as a necessarily antiauthoritarian version of “hermeneutics as politics.” It does so by critically rereading Derrida's 1968 essay “Plato's Pharmacy.” Part 1 reconstructs Derrida's key claims in “Plato's Pharmacy,” turning on the ambiguous signifier “pharmakon” and the treatment of writing in the Phaedrus. Part 2 examines Derrida's three claims in “Plato's Pharmacy” concerning the political, putatively antiauthoritarian significance of his deconstruction of “platonism.” Part 3 contests these claims, arguing that Derrida cannot comprehend Socratic irony since he is blind to the political shaping of Plato's dialogic writing, as the artful attempt to present and inspire philosophical inquiry within the city, while avoiding the condemnation directed against Socrates by the men of Athens in 399 BCE. Finally, I argue that Derrida's indebtedness to Heidegger underlies these shortcomings in his reading of Plato.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.