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Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
Parabronema skrjabini is one of the most harmful nematodes to camels and is responsible for economic losses in animal husbandry industry. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of potential vectors of the nematode due to its scant regarding information. As previous studies indicated that flies may be the vectors of P. skrjabini, we captured flies in the main camel-producing areas of Inner Mongolia. After autopsy of the specimens of two species of horn flies, we observed the morphology of the suspected nematode larvae found in them. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-DNA gene sequences were considered the best candidate to confirm the species of the larvae found. Our results showed that the homology compared with P. skrjabini was 99.5% in GenBank. Subsequently, we preliminarily identified two species of horn flies through morphological observation and then sequenced the mitochondrial-DNA-gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I obtained from two species of horn flies, with 100 and 99.2% similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank, respectively. Thus, we identified Haematobia titillans and Haematobia irritans and provided evidence for their potential role as vectors of parabronemosis. Our study provides reference for future research on the life history of the nematode and the vectors of parabronemosis.
The near-cosmopolitan genus Clytia is abundantly found in coastal waters, but difficulties of identification in this genus make nearly all species records of medusae suspect. Complex life histories, ambiguous taxonomic characters, and phenotypic plasticity pose serious problems for accurate species-level identifications and future revisions of Clytia species. In the present study, morphological investigations and molecular analyses of Clytia specimens from the coastal waters of the East China Sea revealed Clytia gulangensis sp. nov. as a new species. DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene supported the new species as a separate species within Clytia, and phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA and nuclear 18S rDNA further confirmed this new species to be a distinct lineage. Moreover, detailed observation of medusae and polyps of this species showed sufficient morphological differences from other Clytia species for a diagnosis. Our results indicated that life cycle and DNA-based studies should be a standard approach in future biodiversity investigations of Clytia species.
The genus Clytia is distributed worldwide, but most accepted species in this genus have been examined either only at the hydroid or medusa stage. The challenge in identifying Clytia species reflects their complex life cycles and phenotypic plasticity. In this study, molecular and morphological investigations of Clytia specimens from the coastal waters of China revealed an as yet unreported species, designated C. xiamenensis sp. nov., that was considered as conspecific to two nearly cosmopolitan species, C. hemisphaerica and C. gracilis. DNA barcoding based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S) confirmed the highly distinct lineage of C. xiamenensis sp. nov. These results were corroborated by the detailed observations of its mature medusae and its colonies, which showed that C. xiamenensis sp. nov. was morphologically distinct from other species of Clytia. Thus, based on our findings, the nearly cosmopolitan distribution attributed to some species of Clytia might rather be due to the misidentification, and it is necessary to elucidate their whole life cycle in order to establish the systematic validity of all species within the genus Clytia.
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