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The lack of excellent wheat germplasm resources on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has led to a gradual decrease in genetic diversity and an increasingly narrow genetic background in wheat grown in this region. Rational use of excellent genes from wheat relatives is important to increase genetic diversity, broaden the genetic base and achieve high yield and quality in common wheat. The objective of this study was to use principal component and cluster analyses of 13 important agronomic traits of 44 Polish wheat varieties over 3 years and comprehensively evaluate them to screen for excellent germplasm resources, thus providing the basic material for broadening the genetic base of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau wheat germplasm resources.
This study examined the influences of coated folic acid (CFA) and coated riboflavin (CRF) on bull performance, nutrients digestion and ruminal fermentation. Forty-eight Angus bulls based on a randomised block and 2 × 2 factorial design were assigned to four treatments. The CFA of 0 or 6 mg of folic acid/kg DM was supplemented in diets with CRF 0 or 60 mg riboflavin (RF)/kg DM. Supplementation of CRF in diets with CFA had greater increase in daily weight gain and feed efficiency than in diets without CFA. Supplementation with CFA or CRF enhanced digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral-detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrate. Ruminal pH and ammonia N content decreased and total volatile fatty acids concentration and acetate to propionate ratio elevated for CFA or CRF addition. Supplement of CFA or CRF increased the activities of fibrolytic enzymes and the numbers of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant fibrolytic bacteria and Prevotella ruminicola. The activities of α-amylase, protease and pectinase and the numbers of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminobacter amylophilus were increased by CFA but were unaffected by CRF. Blood concentration of folate elevated and homocysteine decreased for CFA addition. The CRF supplementation elevated blood concentrations of folate and RF. These findings suggested that CFA or CRF inclusion had facilitating effects on performance and ruminal fermentation, and combined addition of CFA and CRF had greater increase in performance than CFA or CRF addition alone in bulls.
To investigate the influences of cobalt (Co) and folic acid (FA) on growth performance and rumen fermentation, Holstein male calves (n 40) were randomly assigned to four groups according to their body weights. Cobalt sulphate at 0 or 0·11 mg Co/kg DM and FA at 0 or 7·2 mg/kg DM were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Average daily gain was elevated with FA or Co supplementation, but the elevation was greater for supplementing Co in diets without FA than with FA. Supplementing FA or Co increased DM intake and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Rumen pH was unaltered with FA but reduced with Co supplementation. Concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acids was elevated with FA or Co inclusion. Acetate percentage and acetate to propionate ratio were elevated with FA inclusion. Supplementing Co decreased acetate percentage and increased propionate percentage. Activities of xylanase and α-amylase and populations of total bacteria, fungi, protozoa, Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Prevotella ruminicola increased with FA or Co inclusion. Activities of carboxymethyl-cellulase and pectinase increased with FA inclusion and population of methanogens decreased with Co addition. Blood folates increased and homocysteine decreased with FA inclusion. Blood glucose and vitamin B12 increased with Co addition. The data suggested that supplementing 0·11 mg Co/kg DM in diets containing 0·09 mg Co/kg DM increased growth performance and nutrient digestibility but had no improvement on the effects of FA addition in calves.
This paper proposes a set of novel indices for evaluating the kinematic performance of a 3-RRS (R and S denote revolute and spherical joint respectively, R denotes active joint.), parallel mechanism whose translational and rotational movements are strongly coupled. First, the indices are formulated using the decoupled overall Jacobian matrix, which is developed using coordinate transformation. Then, the influences of the homogeneous dimensionless parameters on these indices are investigated. In addition, the dimension synthesis of the 3-RRS parallel mechanism is carried out by minimizing the mean value of the kinematic performance indices and their standard deviation. The results demonstrate that the established approach facilitates good global kinematic performance of the parallel mechanism.
This paper presents an investigation of the precise point positioning (PPP) performance of a combined solution from BDS-2 and BDS-3 satellites. To simultaneously process different BDS signal observations, i.e., B1/B1C, B2/B2a and B3C, undifferenced and uncombined observations with ionosphere delay constrained by the deterministic plus stochastic ionosphere model are used in the basic model. Special attention is paid to code bias and receiver clock parameters in the derivation of the observation model. The analysis is carried out using more than one-month data for BDS-2 and BDS-3 collected at the CANB, DWIN, KNDY and PETH stations in the Asia-Pacific region. The results suggest that compared with BDS-2 alone, the BDS-2 and BDS-3 solution provides significantly more accurate PPP, with increases of 28%, 21% and 5% in the up, north and east directions, respectively. In addition, the average root mean square error decreases to 0·21, 0·13 and 0·16 m for the three directions. Furthermore, the PPP convergence time for BDS-2 and BDS-3 is about 1·5 h and less than 1 h for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, whereas that for BDS-2 alone is about 2·3 h for both directions.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
We develop a model of the skin-friction coefficient based on scalar images in the compressible, spatially evolving boundary-layer transition. The images are extracted from a passive scalar field by a sliding window filter on the streamwise and wall-normal plane. The multi-scale and multi-directional geometric analysis is applied to characterize the averaged inclination angle of spatially evolving filtered component fields at different scales ranging from a boundary-layer thickness to several viscous length scales. In general, the averaged inclination angles increase along the streamwise direction, and the variation of the angles for large-scale structures is smaller than that for small-scale structures. Inspired by the coincidence of the increasing averaged inclination angle and the rise of the skin-friction coefficient, we propose a simple image-based model of the skin-friction coefficient. The model blends empirical formulae of the skin-friction coefficient in laminar and fully developed turbulent regions using the normalized averaged inclination angle of scalar structures at intermediate and small scales. The model prediction calculated from scalar images is validated by the results from the direct numerical simulation at two Mach numbers, 2.25 and 6, and the relative error can be less than 15 %.
Wireless power transmission (WPT) systems with moveable mechanical parts have been acquired more and more attention during the past decade. However, due to the moveable feature of transmitting coil and receiving coil, misalignment issue lead to extra power loss, decrease in efficiency, increase in control complexity, and unwanted performance degradation of the whole system. Moreover, it happened frequently than those traditional planar coils systems. The motivation for this paper is trying to have a deep understanding of quantitative relationship between ball-shaped coils mutual inductance and misalignment. Based upon that, engineers would know more detail of the coils position and mutual inductance. So, optimized design might be achieved. On considering that, this paper presents a WPT system with a ball-shaped coil for robot joints. A mutual inductance calculation based on filament method aimed at ball-shaped coil is proposed. Based on these, nine different ball-shaped coil solutions are calculated. Then, model with a minimized change rate of mutual inductance against the angular misalignment is chosen as the optimized design. Circuit analysis of the WPT system with the series–series resonant topology is conducted to choose a proper working frequency and load. Finally, an experimental platform is established. It demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed calculation method and the feasibility of the WPT prototype.
In this work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize and analyze the precipitation/dissolution kinetics of second phase particles during the cooling/reheating process in a vanadium microalloyed steel. The results indicated that three obvious exothermic peaks were detected on the cooling DSC curve. Furthermore, three corresponding endothermic peaks were also detected on the heating DSC curve. Combined with thermodynamic calculation and transmission electron microscopy analysis, these three exothermic peaks along cooling DSC curve were defined as the precipitation reaction of V(CN), the reaction of austenite transformation into ferrite and the precipitation reaction of VC, respectively. Meanwhile, three corresponding reverse reactions for cooling were also defined along the reheating DSC curve. The linear regression result revealed that the precipitation activation energies for V(CN) and VC were identified as 311.2 kJ/mol and 167.6 kJ/mol, respectively. The dissolution activation energies for VC and V(CN) were identified as 255.4 kJ/mol and 592.6 kJ/mol, respectively.
Actinocerid nautiloids from the Lhasai Formation in the Xainza region are studied systematically for the first time. The nautiloids are identified as Middle Ordovician in age based on stratigraphic correlations with those from North China, Sibumasu, North Australia (northern Gondwana), and North America (Laurentia). A cluster analysis shows strong affinities between the actinocerid nautiloids of the Lhasa Terrane and those of the Himalaya, North China, and Sibumasu terranes. Our results support Middle Ordovician paleogeographic reconstructions that place North China rather than South China much closer to Australia. Nine species assigned to six genera of Meitanoceratidae, Wutinoceratidae, Armenoceratidae, Ormoceratidae, and Discoactinoceratidae are described in detail: Pomphoceras nyalamense (Chen, 1975), Pomphoceras yaliense (Chen, 1975), Wutinoceras cf. W. foerstei (Endo, 1930), Mesowutinoceras giganteum Chen in Chen and Zou, 1984, Armenoceras tani (Grabau, 1922), Armenoceras teicherti Endo, 1932, Armenoceras xizangense new species, Deiroceras globosom Zou and Shen in Chen and Zou, 1984, and Discoactinoceras cf. D. multiplexum Kobayashi, 1927.
This work was aimed to use the peak separation method to directly measure the critical temperatures and phase transition fractions of austenite decomposition products based on experimental dilatometric curves in hypo-eutectoid steels. The results indicated that pearlite transformation start temperature and ferrite transformation finish temperature could be clearly obtained through peak separation processing, which were generally hidden in the overlapped peaks of the linear thermal expansion coefficient curve. Moreover, four critical temperatures of austenite decomposition were retarded to lower temperature with cooling rate increasing. The phase transition fraction for austenite decomposition was quantitated by measuring the area of the corresponding phase transformation peak. The final ferrite phase fraction after austenite decomposition decreased with cooling rate increasing. On the contrary, the final pearlite phase fraction increased with cooling rate increasing. Compared with the lever rule, the calculation result using peak area method can accurately reflect the actual phase fraction change versus the temperature during austenite decomposition.
Geochronological, elemental and isotopic data of the Dashizhuzi granites and lamprophyre dykes from the eastern Hebei – western Liaoning on the northern North China Craton (NCC) provide an insight into the nature of their magma sources and subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The Dashizhuzi granites have an emplacement age of 226 Ma. They have enriched lithospheric mantle type 1 (EM1-like) Sr–Nd isotopic compositions, and have distinctive features of high Na2O and Sr and low Y with high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. These characteristics show that the Dashizhuzi granites originated directly from melting of mafic lower crust composed of pre-existing ancient crustal and enriched mantle-derived juvenile crustal materials at normal continental crustal depth of 33–40 km. The lamprophyre dykes are dated at 167 Ma, and can be divided into two groups. The Group 1 dykes have variable Sr–Nd isotopic compositions and mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB-) like Th/U, Ba/Th and Ce/Pb ratios, whereas the Group 2 dykes have enriched Sr–Nd isotopic compositions and notable high Co, Cr, MgO and low Al2O3 characteristics. These distinctive features suggest that the Group 1 dykes were derived from a relatively fertile lithospheric mantle source (garnet-facies amphibole-bearing lherzolite) which has experienced variable degrees of asthenospheric mantle-derived melt–peridotite interaction prior to melting. However, the Group 2 dykes were derived from an ancient garnet-facies phlogopite and/or amphibole-bearing lherzolite lithospheric mantle. Thinning of the Early Mesozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the northern NCC is dominantly through melt–peridotite interaction and thermo-mechanical erosion prior to Middle Jurassic time. The chemical compositions have been modified at the bottom of the lithospheric mantle through melt–peridotite interaction processes.
In the present study, we evaluated the reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns among Chinese adult populations. A random subsample of 203 participants (aged 31–80 years) from a community-based nutrition and health survey was enrolled. An eighty-seven-item FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) 1 year apart; four 3 consecutive day, 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR, as a reference method) were performed between the administrations of the two FFQ every 3 months. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived using factor analysis based on twenty-eight predefined food groups. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson’s or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), cross-classification analysis, weighted κ statistic and Bland–Altman plots; the four major dietary patterns identified from FFQ1, FFQ2 and 24-HDR were similar. Regarding reproducibility, ICC for z-scores between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were all >0·6 for dietary patterns. The ‘animal and plant protein’ pattern had the highest ICC of 0·870. For validity, the adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients for dietary pattern z-scores between two FFQ and the mean of four 3 consecutive day 24-HDR ranged from 0·387 for the ‘Chinese traditional’ pattern to 0·838 for the ‘animal and plant protein’ pattern. More than 75 % of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quartile, and <5 % were misclassified into opposite quartiles. The weighted κ ranged from 0·259 to 0·680. Bland–Altman plots indicated that no significant deviation was found between two dietary assessment methods. Our findings indicate a good reasonable reproducibility and a reasonable validity of dietary patterns derived by factor analysis in China.
The Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites with improved photocatalytic activity were prepared by a facile in situ deposition of Ag3PO4 particles on the surface of C3N4 sheets and characterized by x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) over the Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites was investigated and optimized, indicating that the optimal amount of Ag3PO4 in the composites was 90 wt%. The remarkably improved photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4/C3N4 composites could be attributed to the effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The photoelectrochemical measurements confirmed that the charge separation efficiency was improved for the formation of composites. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers demonstrated that h+ and ·O2− were the main active species for the degradation of RhB.
Previous studies have shown that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) exerts antibacterial, immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of enteral bLF supplementation on intestinal adaptation and barrier function in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Male Sprague–Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomised into three groups (n 10 per group): Sham group (rats submitted to bowel transection and reanastomosis); SBS group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection); SBS-bLF group (rats submitted to 80 % small-bowel resection plus treatment with bLF (0·5 g/kg per d) by oral administration from day 2 to day 20). Despite similar food intake, both the SBS and SBS-bLF groups exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, but increased villus height and crypt depth and a higher intestinal epithelial cell proliferation index (P< 0·05) when compared with the Sham group. Compared with that in the SBS group, in the SBS-bLF group, bacterial translocation to regional organs was low and intestinal permeability was significantly reduced. The SBS-bLF group also had increased secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations in ileal contents (29·9 (23·8–33·0) ng/ml), when compared with the other two groups having similar sIgA concentrations (17·5 (12·6–29·1) and 19·3 (11·5–27·0) ng/ml, respectively). The relative expression levels of two tight junction (TJ) proteins, occludin and claudin-4, in the SBS-bLF group were significantly higher than those in the SBS group (P< 0·05), but did not exhibit any significant differences when compared with those in the Sham group. In conclusion, enteral bLF supplementation up-regulates small-bowel sIgA concentrations and TJ protein expression and reduces intestinal permeability and could thus support intestinal barrier integrity and protect against bacterial infections in SBS.
In this paper, a new flexure-based micropositioning stage (FMPS) is proposed to achieve decoupled XY translational motions and large travel ranges. The stage consists of four independent kinematic chains, each comprising two flexure-beam prismatic joints. The mechanism with such a special topological structure enables the motions of the platform strictly along XY axes and minimizes the parasitic rotation in theta axis. The kinematics and dynamics analysis of the mechanism are conducted to evaluate the performance of the mechanism in terms of travel range, parasitic motions, linearity, as well as natural frequency. According to the developed models, a parameter optimization of the mechanism is performed under the condition of the maximum travel range. The finite element simulation is carried out to examine the mechanical performance and the theoretical models. The experimental results show that the proposed FMPS possesses a workspace of 600 × 600 μm2, a relative coupling error of 0.6%, and the natural frequencies of 209.7 Hz and 212.4 Hz for the first two modes.
Adaptive gait planning is an important aspect in the development of control systems for multi-legged robots traversing on rough terrain. The problem of adaptive gait generation
can be viewed as one of finding a sequence of suitable foothold on rough terrain so that legged systems maintain static stability and motion continuity. Due to the limit of static stability, deadlock situation may occur in the process of searching for a suitable foothold, if terrain contains a large number of forbidden zones. In this paper, an improved method for adaptive gait planning is presented by active compensation of stability margin, through center of gravity (CG) adjustment in the longitudinal axis and/or body translation in the lateral direction. An algorithm for the proposed method is developed and embedded in a computer program. Simulation results show that the method provides legged machines with a much larger terrain adaptivity and better deadlock-avoidance ability.
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