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In this paper, CuCr–Zr alloys prepared by vacuum melting with adding La and Ni elementswere heat-treated and aged, followed by plastic deformation using low-energy cyclic impact tests, to simultaneously improve their mechanical and electrical properties. Results showed that the grain size of the casted Cu–Cr–Zr alloys was significantly reduced after the solid-solution aging and plastic deformation process. There were a lot of dispersed Cr and Cu5Zr precipitates formed in the alloys, and the numbers of dislocations were significantly increased. Accordingly, the hardness was increased from 78 to 232 HV, and the tensile strength was increased from 225 to 691 MPa. Electrical conductivity has not been significantly affected after these processes. The enhancement of overall performance is mainly attributed to the combined effects of solid-solution hardening, fine grain hardening, and precipitation/dislocation strengthening.
Alcohol is legally accessible and widely used in Taiwan, but few studies have addressed alcohol-drinking problems in hospital settings.
To explore (1) the prevalence and risk factors for hazardous alcohol-drinking problems and (2) previous assessments and interventions for alcohol-drinking problems among a general Chinese patient population.
Self-report data were collected from 484 patients at five randomly selected hospitals.
The prevalence of hazardous alcohol-drinking problems was 19.2%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors for hazardous drinking problems were being male, smoking, and chewing betel quid. Only 29.1% of participants were assessed for drinking problems in the past year. Only 38.7% of participants with drinking problems had received a drinking intervention in the past year.
Alcohol problems in Taiwanese general hospitals are insufficiently assessed and targeted with interventions. Targeting high-risk groups and integrating psychiatric healthcare teams in general hospitals are important to prevent patients’ drinking problems.
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection has been a major public health threat globally. Monitoring and prediction of CT epidemic status and trends are important for programme planning, allocating resources and assessing impact; however, such activities are limited in China. In this study, we aimed to apply a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to predict the incidence of CT infection in Shenzhen city, China. The monthly incidence of CT between January 2008 and June 2019 in Shenzhen was used to fit and validate the SARIMA model. A seasonal fluctuation and a slightly increasing pattern of a long-term trend were revealed in the time series of CT incidence. The monthly CT incidence ranged from 4.80/100 000 to 21.56/100 000. The mean absolute percentage error value of the optimal model was 8.08%. The SARIMA model could be applied to effectively predict the short-term CT incidence in Shenzhen and provide support for the development of interventions for disease control and prevention.
Mechanical fracture of electrodes will occur during lithiation caused by large volume changes, which leads to the capacity loss of the lithium-ion battery. Herein, we present a new analytical model to investigate the effect of creep deformation on stress relaxation and fracture of the lithiated tin (Sn) electrode under the galvanostatic and potentiostatic operation. Interestingly, it is found that the presence of creep can improve fracture resistance and toughness of the Sn electrode. In addition, the surface effect has the capacity to weaken the creep deformation effectively. And the different size of the Sn electrode shows different effects for creep deformation. This conclusion explains the difference in charging conditions, and the mechanism of stress change inside the electrode is also different. Deeply, the base on our model, the stress strength factor, and critical size of the electrode have been evaluated under galvanostatic and potentiostatic operation with creep deformation effects. Finally, the safety area during lithiation is established to determine the critical size of the Sn electrode. And the presence of creep deformation may significantly increase critical dimensions of the electrode. These results will provide a valuable basis to design the durable electrodes.
A facile and low-cost method based for tension gradient self-assembly was developed to prepare polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanofiber coatings on stainless-steel fiber felts. The PTFE particles were used as building blocks and the self-assembly process was analyzed thoroughly. After being sintered, the PTFE particles were transformed into PTFE nanofibers. The felts coated with the PTFE nanofibers exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, and could separate a series of oil–water mixtures with high efficiency and good reusability. The coated felts also presented excellent chemical and thermal stabilities. Over all, this approach could easily fabricate ultra-robust oil–water separation materials suitable for industrial applications.
This study was performed to explore the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and analyse the association between the left ventricular ejection fraction and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all consecutive inpatients with Kawasaki disease at Wenzhou Medical University Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children’s Hospital in Wenzhou, China from January 2009 to December 2016. We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and left ventricular ejection fraction between patients with and without Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and analysed the effect of the left ventricular ejection fraction on Kawasaki disease shock syndrome under different clinical conditions of Kawasaki disease.
In total, 1147 patients were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. Of these 1147 patients, 17 were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome; 68 patients admitted to the hospital at the same time, ±2 weeks, with Kawasaki disease but without Kawasaki disease shock syndrome served as the control group. Compared with the control group, the Kawasaki disease shock syndrome group had a significantly higher incidence of coronary artery lesions, cardiac troponin I concentration, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide concentration, neutrophil count and ratio, alanine aminotransferase concentration, aspartate aminotransferase concentration, and C-reactive protein concentration and a significantly lower platelet count, serum albumin concentration, and left ventricular ejection fraction. A low left ventricular ejection fraction was associated with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome under different conditions of Kawasaki disease.
Among patients with Kawasaki disease, cardiac injury is more likely in those with Kawasaki disease shock syndrome than without, and a low left ventricular ejection fraction may be associated with the development of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome.
In this study, a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic stainless mesh coated with polytetrafluoroethylene/silicon dioxide (PTFE/SiO2) was fabricated through electrostatic self-assembly method followed by sintering treatment. The PTFE was utilized to construct low-surface-energy surface and the SiO2 nanoparticles were added to enhance its surface roughness. The as-prepared stainless mesh exhibited desirable superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity with a water contact angle of 152° and oil contact angle of 0°. The coated stainless mesh could separate a variety of oil/water mixtures with high efficiency and it also exhibited good recyclability. Moreover, the corrosion-resistance of stainless mesh was greatly improved by coating it with PTFE. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed that the coated mesh could withstand high temperature of up to 430°C, indicating excellent thermal-resistance. It is believed that this ultra-robust stainless mesh would have significant potential applications in industry.
Advance directives are important for nursing home residents with dementia; for those with advanced dementia, surrogates determine medical decisions. However, in Taiwan, little is known about what influences the completion of these advance directives. The purpose of this study was to identify factors, which influence the presence of advance directives for nursing home residents with dementia in Taiwan.
Our cross-sectional study analyzed a convenience sample of 143 nursing home dyads comprised of residents with dementia and family surrogates. Documentation of residents’ advance directives, physical and cognitive status was obtained from medical charts. Surrogates completed the stress of end-of-life care decision scale and a questionnaire regarding their demographic characteristics. Nursing home characteristics were obtained from each chief administrator.
Less than half of the nursing home residents (39.2%) had advance directives and most (96.4%) had been completed by family surrogates. The following were predictors of an advance directive: surrogates had previously signed a do-not-resuscitate as a proxy and had been informed of advance directives by a healthcare provider; nursing homes had policies for advance directives and a religious affiliation.
Advance directives were uncommon for nursing home residents with dementia. Presence of an advance directive was associated with surrogate characteristics and the nursing home facilities; there was no association with characteristics of the nursing home resident. Our findings emphasize the need to develop policies and strategies, which ensure that all residents of nursing homes and their surrogates are aware of their right to an advance directive.
In this paper, an ultra-wideband (UWB) filter with a notch band using T-shaped step impedance resonator loaded with cross-shaped open stubs has been presented. The notch band is formed by utilizing intrinsic zero. The characteristics of the new quad-mode resonator have been analyzed using odd-even mode analysis method. It can be shown that it is the intrinsic zero that generates the notch band. In addition, wide tunable notch band form 5–9.3 GHz can be achieved. A UWB filter with a notch band centered at 6.25 GHz using the proposed quad-mode resonator has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Experiment results show that the attenuation in notch frequency is >22 dB while the return loss of the simulation and measurement results are 22 dB/20 dB and 14.5 dB/11.2 dB in the lower and upper passband, respectively, which illustrate that the simulation and measurement results are in agreement.
Although Lievens and Motowidlo (2016) made a strong case for reconceptualizing situational judgment tests (SJTs) as measures of general domain knowledge, we disagree with their view that the judgment or assessment of the situation itself is not important. We contend that situation assessment is an integral yet ignored factor in SJTs and that both general domain knowledge and situation assessment are needed to better understand how SJTs work.
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
Dilatometric studies of C–Mn hypoeutectoid steel with an as-cast structure were carried out to study the effects of the heating or cooling rate, heating and cooling process on phase transformation, and the thermal expansion coefficient. As the heating or cooling rate (Vc) increased, the characteristic temperatures of Ac1, Acp, and Ac3 also rose, while Ar3, Ar1, and Arp fell. In addition, the phase transformation temperature range (Ac3–Ac1) rose, while (Ar3–Arp) fell as the heating or cooling rate increased. At the same time, the maximum thermal expansion coefficients│αT│ between the heating and cooling processes during phase transformation showed significant differences, and the difference (│ΔαT│) in the maximum │αT│ between these processes increased along with the heating or cooling rate, and this is because of the different phase transformation rates, with regard to the change from austenite to ferrite on cooling and ferrite to austenite on heating. During the heating process, the phase transformation rate of ferrite to austenite first decreases and then increases as the temperature rises, and the phase transformation rate of austenite to ferrite first increases and then decreases during the cooling process. The evolution of carbon and substitutional alloying elements (Si and Mn) in austenite during heating and cooling is also analyzed in this work.
Factors affecting quality of life (QOL) ratings for people with dementia (PWD) have been well studied, but few studies have examined the effect of residence on PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs. We designed this study to determine the factors related to PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL in dementia as well as factors related to the discrepancy in these ratings.
For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from a convenience sample of 106 PWD-family caregiver dyads (58 community-dwelling dyads and 48 nursing-home dyads). PWDs’ data included socio-demographic variables, QOL (assessed by the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease [QOL-AD] scale), cognition, dementia severity, depression, comorbidities, and quality of the dyadic relationship. Caregivers’ data included socio-demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and mutuality of the dyadic relationship.
QOL-AD scores were lower when rated by caregivers than by PWDs. The key factors positively related to both PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs were fewer PWD depressive symptoms and higher quality of the PWD-caregiver relationship. The key factors related to the discrepancy in PWD- and caregiver-rated QOL in dementia were PWD residence in a nursing home and lower dementia severity, as well as higher caregiver depression, being an adult child caregiver, and lower caregiver-PWD mutuality.
Caregiver-rated QOL for PWDs and the discrepancy in rated QOL were significantly associated with PWD residence. If caregiver-rated QOL is needed, the effect of residence of PWD should be taken into consideration. Caregivers’ depressive status and mutuality with PWD must be also carefully assessed.
Zn3(VO4)2 nanorods with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction and characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and pore size analyzer. The Zn3(VO4)2 nanorods consisted of rods with a thickness of approximately 30 nm, length in the range 400–600 nm, and width in the range 150–250 nm. The photocatalytic degradation activities for methylene blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) over the Zn3(VO4)2 nanorods were studied in detail. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared photocatalyst for MB and 4-NP in visible light under the same conditions was about 3.5 times and 2.5 times higher than that of N–TiO2, respectively. The main active species in the photodegradation come from •OH, and the photogenerated electrons also partly involved in the photocatalytic degradation process, in which the •OH radicals formed were in proportional to the light illumination time obeying zero-order reaction rate kinetics.
The ZrO2 and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) composite photocatalyst has been prepared by calcination process and hydrothermal treatment. The photocatalyst was characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller and photoluminescence spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the activity of the composite photocatalyst ZrO2/g-C3N4 for photodegradation of MB is much higher than that of either pure g-C3N4 or ZrO2, which is ascribed to the effective electron–hole separation based on the photoluminescence spectra. The •O2− might be the main active species in MB photodegradation, and the •OH and photogenerated electrons are also partly involved in the process of photocatalytic degradation.
New-type Ni-based superalloys with and without Nb were designed in this study. Their hot corrosion behaviors were investigated at 800 °C with the deposition of a mixture of Na2SO4 and NaCl. The corrosion kinetics was studied by thermogravimetry. Microstructure of the corrosion scales was studied by SEM and the phase constituent was analyzed by XRD. Results showed that the corrosion kinetics followed approximately parabolic law. The corrosion scales on the two Ni-based alloys were comprised of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, and NiCr2O4. NiO was only detected in the scale on alloy without Nb. Nb2O5 appeared with the addition of 2.0 wt% Nb. No sulfide emerged in the scales. The corrosion scales both exhibited a layered structure. With Nb addition, the hot corrosion resistance of the alloy was notably improved. The action mechanism of Nb was investigated extensively in this study.
Ionospheric disturbances affect Global Positioning System (GPS) performance in terms of accuracy and integrity, especially over the equatorial region. During the period of the disturbances, GPS receivers suffer from a high noise level. Not taken into account by the current stochastic model, the ionospheric disturbances degrade GPS positioning accuracy. In addition, non-Gaussian tails are observed in the distribution of the noise during the period of the disturbances; therefore the integrity of GPS can also be affected. This paper develops a statistical solution that is able to mitigate effects of ionospheric disturbances on GPS accuracy and integrity using a commercial dual frequency receiver. The Rate of Total Electron Content (TEC) change Index (ROTI), a parameter derived from the dual frequency receiver, is used to group the levels of ionospheric disturbances. The standard deviations of the pseudorange noise under different groups are evaluated. By incorporating both the ROTI and the satellite elevation, a modified stochastic model is proposed to reduce the effect of the disturbed observation on the positioning accuracy. The performance of the model is evaluated by a test and an inflated sigma for each group is recommended for over-bounding anomalies of observations to protect the user against threats from ionospheric disturbances. This technique, together with results in this paper, can be applied to mitigate the effects of ionospheric disturbances on GPS.
COMPASS or BeiDou is the new satellite navigation system under construction in China. In this paper, the standalone performance of COMPASS is compared to the Global Positioning System (GPS), including: Single Point Positioning (SPP), differential positioning (DGPS and Differential COMPASS) and single epoch ambiguity resolution and positioning. Based on the results, it was found that COMPASS SPP performance is clearly worse than that of GPS, due to larger broadcast orbit and satellite clock errors, especially the latter. Differential positioning performance of COMPASS and GPS are essentially similar, with GPS marginally better. COMPASS single epoch ambiguity resolution performance is obviously better than that of GPS due to more observed satellites and the single epoch positioning performance of COMPASS and GPS are similar.
This study investigates the influences of constant compensations which are produced by capillary or constant flow pump on the dynamic characteristics of a circular worktable supported by a closed-type hydrostatic thrust bearing. The dynamic behaviors of this worktable are analyzed by using Runge-Kutta method to solve the coupled motion equation of worktable and pressure equations of hydrostatic film flow. For various supply pressure parameters, external loads, and varieties of design parameters, the dynamic responses of worktable subjected to both external excitations of harmonic force and step force are simulated, respectively. The results reveal the influences of both constant compensations on the dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic bearing by the different responses of worktable and make the appropriate parameters of design can be found for the worktable-bearing system. The accomplishments of this study will help the designers who deal with the hydrostatic- bearing compensated by constant restrictions to select the design parameters to approach the optimum condition.