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The multicoloured Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), has become a pest in North American vineyards during harvest due to its adverse effects on wine quality. This study evaluated alternative products that may be suitable for use in vineyards as repellents to the beetle. Products were screened as repellent for multicoloured Asian lady beetle in short-term laboratory trials. Thirteen products significantly reduced the number of beetles on grapes, Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae). Products that showed a 50% or greater repellency were evaluated for residual repellency 24, 48, and 72 hours after application. In these trials, pine oil was highly repellent at each testing period, whereas the repellency of most other products decreased over time. Eight repellent compounds were evaluated in field trials in commercial vineyards that had high multicoloured Asian lady beetle populations. The number of beetles on vines was counted 2–6 and 24–28 hours after application. In the field, the most effective repellents overall were Biobenton and Buran, which reduced the number of multicoloured Asian lady beetles by 39 and 34%, respectively. The discovery of new repellents of multicoloured Asian lady beetle provides an opportunity to improve management of the pest in vineyards and to reduce risk of wine taint without using broad-spectrum insecticides.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled-nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
This cohort study was conducted during March 22–May 4, 2020, among all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact with a confirmed case; restricting movement between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and the use of recommended PPE (ie, isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPSs, 21 (3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive: 16 (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen cases (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 cases (81%), and PPSs identified 4 cases (19%). Most cases (71%) were identified before IPC interventions could be implemented. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from 4 staff and 4 residents: 5 were of Santa Clara County lineage and the 3 others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPSs, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
Criminal Law Perspectives: From Principles to Practice is an engaging introduction to the criminal law in New South Wales, Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and the Commonwealth Criminal Code. It takes a comparative approach to the law in these jurisdictions, focusing on prevalent summary offences, substantive federal offences and criminal procedure. Complex concepts are explained and contextualised by linking them to practical applications. Each chapter is supported by tools for self-assessment: review questions; case boxes summarising and extracting key historical and contemporary cases; and longer, narrative end-of-chapter problems that promote student engagement and help students develop problem-solving skills and independent thinking. Criminal Law Perspectives explores the development of criminal law principles in Australia, and provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of criminal law for students studying in the area for the first time.