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Preterm birth is a global health problem and associated with increased risk of long-term developmental impairments, but findings on the adverse outcomes of prematurity have been inconsistent.
Data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We identified 1706 preterm children and 1865 matched individuals as Control group and compared brain structure (MRI data), cognitive function and mental health symptoms.
Results showed that preterm children had higher psychopathological risk and lower cognitive function scores compared to controls. Structural MRI analysis indicated that preterm children had higher cortical thickness in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, temporal and occipital gyrus; smaller volumes in the temporal and parietal gyrus, cerebellum, insula and thalamus; and smaller fiber tract volumes in the fornix and parahippocampal-cingulum bundle. Partial correlation analyses showed that gestational age and birth weight were associated with ADHD symptoms, picvocab, flanker, reading, fluid cognition composite, crystallized cognition composite and total cognition composite scores, and measures of brain structure in regions involved with emotional regulation, attention and cognition.
These findings suggest a complex interplay between psychopathological risk and cognitive deficits in preterm children that is associated with changes in regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and structural connectivity among cortical and limbic brain regions critical for cognition and emotional well-being.
A pulsed fast neutron source is critical for applications of fast neutron resonance radiography and fast neutron absorption spectroscopy. However, due to the large transversal source size (of the order of mm) and long pulse duration (of the order of ns) of traditional pulsed fast neutron sources, it is difficult to realize high-contrast neutron imaging with high spatial resolution and a fine absorption spectrum. Here, we experimentally present a micro-size ultra-short pulsed neutron source by a table-top laser–plasma wakefield electron accelerator driving a photofission reaction in a thin metal converter. A fast neutron source with source size of approximately 500 μm and duration of approximately 36 ps has been driven by a tens of MeV, collimated, micro-size electron beam via a hundred TW laser facility. This micro-size ultra-short pulsed neutron source has the potential to improve the energy resolution of a fast neutron absorption spectrum dozens of times to, for example, approximately 100 eV at 1.65 MeV, which could be of benefit for high-quality fast neutron imaging and deep understanding of the theoretical model of neutron physics.
The variability of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) during the Holocene exhibits significant regional response, and its evolution needs further discussion. A well-dated, high-resolution sea-surface temperature record based on long-chain unsaturated alkenones, grain-size data, and clay mineral assemblages from the South Yellow Sea sediment is presented to investigate the sedimentary provenance and reconstruct the EAM over the past 9.5 ka. The results show that the sediments are most likely supplied by the Huanghe. The evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can be divided into three periods: strong and relatively stable conditions during 9.5–7.0 ka, weakened conditions during 7.0–1.5 ka, and strengthened conditions during 1.5–0 ka. The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) has experienced five periods: weakened conditions during 9.5–6.7 ka, weak and relatively stable conditions during 6.7–5.6 ka, strong and relatively stable conditions during 5.6–2.6 ka, strengthened conditions during 2.6–1.5 ka, and weak and stable conditions during 1.5–0 ka. Moreover, in-phase correlation was found between the EAWM and EASM at the orbital time scale in response to orbital-driven solar insolation, but out-of-phase correlation at a centennial time scale is predominantly associated with solar activity.
The formation of low-angle grain boundaries (LABs) in the rejoined platforms of a Ni-based single crystal superalloy under different directional solidification rates was investigated by the experimental investigation and the ProCAST simulation. The results showed that the growth morphology and orientation evolution of dendrites in the platforms were different under the withdrawal rates in the range of 60–100 μm/s and then resulted in different types of LABs. At lower withdrawal rates, the longitudinal LABs were common in the rejoined platforms. Both the sliver defects and the orientation deviation of original primary dendrites from two independent growth paths could cause the longitudinal LABs in the platforms. At higher withdrawal rates, the dendrite growth patterns were more complex and the secondary branches with lateral growth tended to deviate from their original orientation, eventually leading to the formation of some transverse LABs. Finally, some suggestions to prevent the formation of different LABs are provided.
Dating middle Pleistocene hominin occupations alongside the reconstruction of paleoenvironments in China between 700 and 100 ka has always been a challenging task. In this paper, we report thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating results for a Middle Paleolithic site in the Luonan Basin, central China, which we have named Longyadong Cave. The results suggest that the age of cave infilling and the deposition of sediments outside the cave range between 389 ± 18 and 274 ± 14 ka. These deposits are stratigraphically and geochronologically correlated with the L4 loess and S3 paleosol units of the typical loess–paleosol sequence of the Chinese Loess Plateau, and with Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 9, respectively. On the basis of these new ages and the available paleoenvironmental data, it is suggested that the Longyadong hominins might have occupied the site both in glacial and interglacial periods, demonstrating that they coped well with environmental change in this mountainous region in warm/wet and cold/dry climates. The study further implies that the hominins abandoned the Longyadong Cave between 274 ± 14 and 205 ± 19 ka, when it was sealed by alluvial and slope deposits.
The effect of Co on element segregation and microstructure is investigated in the third generation Ni-based single crystal superalloys with 4, 8.5, and 11.5 wt% Co addition. The results show that the increase of Co content leads to a severe element segregation in as-cast microstructure. After heat treatment, the size of γ′ phase is slightly reduced with Co content increase. During the thermal exposure, the γ′ phase coarsens gradually but its coarsening rate decreases with increasing Co content. In addition, some acicular and blocky topologically close-packed (TCP) phases are precipitated in 4% Co and 8.5% Co alloys. However, no TCP phase can be found in 11.5% Co alloy. Finally, it may be concluded that although a higher Co content is harmful for the element segregation, it is beneficial to maintain the cuboidal morphology of γ′ phase, decrease its coarsening rate, and impede the precipitation of TCP phase.
The solid-state phase equilibria of the copper (Cu)–dysprosium (Dy)–titanium (Ti) ternary system at 973 K has been experimentally investigated. The existence of nine binary compounds, Cu4Ti, Cu3Ti2, Cu4Ti3, CuTi, CuTi2, CuTi3, CuDy, Cu2Dy, and Cu5Dy was confirmed. The controversial phase of CuTi3 was found in this work. The temperature range of Cu7Dy was determined to be from 1112 to 1183 K. The phase relations at 973 K are governed by ten ternary phase regions, 21 binary phase regions, and 12 single-phase regions. The solid solubility of Cu in Dy is undetectable. None of the other phase in this system reveals a remarkable homogeneity range at 973 K.
The distribution of the Critically Endangered tree Manglietia longipedunculata, of which there are only 11 known wild individuals, is restricted to the Nankunshan Nature Reserve in South China. The species is threatened with extinction because of its small number of individuals and the impediments to its reproduction (a combination of protogyny, a short period of stigma receptivity, and a lack of efficient pollinators). To reduce the risk of extinction we conducted two conservation translocation trials: one to augment the sole extant population, and the other 202 km north of the current range. The latter trial was a conservation introduction in which the goals were to increase the population and to buffer against the effects of climate change. We used emerged and grafted seedlings as translocation materials. We compared the survival, growth, and eco-physiological properties of emerged and grafted seedlings at the two sites. The survival rate and growth were higher for grafted seedlings than for emerged seedlings at both sites. Eco-physiological data indicated that grafted seedlings at both sites were as efficient or more so in light and water usage than wild individuals, whereas emerged seedlings were less efficient. Grafted seedlings attained the flowering stage sooner than emerged seedlings. Our study suggests that grafting can facilitate the augmentation and establishment of new populations of M. longipedunculata and perhaps of new populations of other threatened species facing reproductive difficulties and climate change.
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