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The application scopes of two different reductive perturbation methods to derive the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and coupled KdV (CKdV) equation in two-temperature-ion dusty plasma are given by using the particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method in the present paper. It suggests that the reductive perturbation method (RPM) is valid if the amplitude of the CKdV solitary wave is small enough. However, for the KdV solitary wave, RPM is valid not only if the amplitude of the KdV solitary wave is small enough, but also if the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation is not tending to zero.
The reflection and transmission of an incident solitary wave with an arbitrary propagation direction due to an interface are investigated in the present paper. It is found that the propagation direction of the transmitted solitary wave depends on not only the propagation direction of the incident solitary wave, but also on the system parameters such as the masses, the number densities of dust particles in two different regions. Dependence of the transmission angle on the plasma parameters and incident angle are given analytically. Moreover, the number and amplitude of transmitted solitary waves and reflected solitary waves are also given when there is only one exact incident solitary wave. Our result has potential application, for example, we can devise an appropriate experiment to measure the differences of the masses and number densities of dust particles between two different regions by using our present results. Furthermore, we can also measure the electric charge of a dust particle by devising an appropriate experiment by using our results.
Different kinds of waves and instabilities in the F-region of the ionosphere excited by the relative streaming of the dust beam to the background plasma are studied in the present paper. The dispersion relations of different waves are obtained on different time scales. It is found from our numerical results that there are both a stable upper hybrid wave on the electron vibration time scale and a stable dust ion cyclotron wave on the ion vibration time scale. However, the chaotic behaviour appears on the dust particles vibration time scale due to the relative streaming of the dust particles to the background plasma. Such instabilities may drive plasma irregularities that could affect radar backscatter from the clouds.
The head-on collision between two dust-acoustic solitary waves in a non-magnetized, collisionless and strongly coupled dust plasma has been studied. The application scope of the analytical solution of the head-on collision is given in the present paper by using the particle-in-cell simulation method. It is noted that the analytical results are valid if the amplitudes of both of the solitary waves are small enough. The effects of the coupling parameters on both the head-on collision and the waveform are also studied in the present paper.
A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is carried out to study the wakefield and stopping power for a hydrogen ion beam pulse with low drift velocity propagation in hydrogen plasmas. The plasma is assumed to be collisionless, uniform, non-magnetized, and in a steady state. Both the pulse ions and plasma particles are treated by the PIC method. The effects of the beam density on the wakefield and stopping power are then obtained and discussed. It is found that as the beam densities increase, the oscillation wakefield induced by the beam become stronger. Besides, the first oscillation wakefield behind the bunch is particularly stronger than others. Moreover, it is found that the stationary stopping power increases linearly with the increase of the beam density in the linear/semilinear region.
Numerical and theoretical investigations are carried out for the stability of the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) under the transverse perturbation in a two-ion temperature magnetized and collisionless dusty plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, modified ZK equation, and Extended ZK (EZK) equation of the DAWs are given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying higher-order transverse perturbations to the soliton solution of the EZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher-order perturbation to the solitary wave are obtained.
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