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The COVID-19 pandemic led to an initial increase in the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from clinical cultures in South-East Asia hospitals, which was unsustained as the pandemic progressed. Conversely, there was a decrease in CRE incidence from surveillance cultures and overall combined incidence. Further studies are needed for future pandemic preparedness.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
Students’ mental health issues have attracted more attention due to the pressure and challenges they experience in today’s society. This study attempts to include the new era sports ideology and politics into the positive influence of college students’ mental health in an effort to better manage the mental health state of college students.
Subjects and Methods
100 college students with psychological anxiety issues were selected as test subjects. 50 college students were assigned to the experimental group and 50 to the control group. The new era sports ideological and political education was provided to the college students in the experimental group during the course of a six-month psychological intervention. The typical personality education approach was employed to students in the control group for a six-month psychological intervention.
The mental health status of the two groups of college students was evaluated and scored according to the anxiety item in the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire (SASRQ). Compared with the control group, the anxiety of college students in the experimental group was obviously eliminated, and the emotional regulation was very effective. Their comprehensive score was 10 points, and the control group scored 22 points.
College students’ mental health is greatly benefited from the modern incorporation of sports-related political and ideological education into their mental health education.
2022 Yunnan Open University Scientific Research Group Project (No. 22YNOUTD04).
Anxiety disorder among college students is currently the main psychological problem, which seriously affects physical and mental health and even leads to the occurrence of adverse events. The anxiety of college students is in the transitional period from adolescence to adulthood, and the main factors that cause anxiety mainly come from three pressures family, school, and society. This study aims to explore intervention and treatment plans for anxiety disorders in college students.
Subjects and Methods
Firstly, 1745 freshmen were selected from a certain university and are familiar with the basic situation of the survey. Secondly, a regression model for anxiety risk was established using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The model was divided into male and female groups and regression analysis was conducted on the growth environment, an only child, parental marital status, and childhood abuse. Finally, SPSS23.0 was used for data analysis and t-test.
The logistic regression analysis of anxiety-related factors showed that the analysis results of growth environment, only child status, and parental marital status were all P>0.05, with no statistical significance. The analysis result of the positive answer in childhood abuse experiences is P<0.001, which is statistically significant. Indicating that childhood abuse is an important factor for anxiety risk.
Early attention and assistance are needed for the discovery, prevention, and treatment of anxiety disorders in college students. On the one hand, parents need to pay attention and avoid childhood abuse, and on the other hand, college education also provides understanding and early intervention in students’ basic situation.
The Hamiltonian of a conventional quantum system is Hermitian, which ensures real spectra of the Hamiltonian and unitary evolution of the system. However, real spectra are just the necessary conditions for a Hamiltonian to be Hermitian. In this paper, we discuss the metric operators for pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian which is similar to its adjoint. We first present some properties of the metric operators for pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for an invertible operator to be a metric operator for a given pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian. When the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian has real spectra, we provide a new method such that any given metric operator can be transformed into the same positive-definite one and the new inner product with respect to the positive-definite metric operator is well defined. Finally, we illustrate the results obtained with an example.
To examine the associations of pregnant women’s dietary and sedentary behaviours with their children’s birth weight.
Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from a randomised controlled trial, Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone, conducted in Australia. Information on mothers’ socio-demographics, dietary and sedentary behaviours during pregnancy was collected by telephone survey at the third trimester. Birth weight data were extracted from the child’s health record book. Multinomial logistic regression models were built to examine the associations of pregnant women’s dietary and sedentary behaviours with children’s birth weight.
Pregnant women and their children.
A total of 1132 mother–child dyads were included in the analysis. The majority of infants (87 %, n 989) were of normal birth weight (2500 g to <4000 g), 4 % (n 50) had low birth weight (<2500 g) and 8 % (n 93) had macrosomia (≥4000 g). Mothers who ate processed meat during pregnancy were more likely to have macrosomia (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 1·80, 95 % CI (1·12, 2·89)). The risk of macrosomia decreased as the number of dietary recommendations met by mothers increased (ARR 0·84, 95 % CI (0·71, 0·99)). Children’s birth weight was not associated with mothers’ sedentary time. Children’s low birth weight was not associated with mothers’ dietary and sedentary behaviours during pregnancy.
Maternal consumption of processed meat during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of macrosomia. Increasing number of dietary recommendations met by mothers was associated with a lower risk of macrosomia. The findings suggested encouraging pregnancy women to meet dietary recommendation will benefit children’s birth weight.
Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of chronic liver diseases, and diet can modulate inflammation. Whether an inflammatory dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of hepatic steatosis or fibrosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the associations between inflammatory dietary pattern and the odds of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis.
In this nationwide cross-sectional study, diet was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score was derived to assess the inflammatory potential of usual diet, which has been validated to highly predict inflammation markers in the study population. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were derived from FibroScan to define steatosis and fibrosis, respectively.
US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
4171 participants aged ≥18 years.
A total of 1436 participants were diagnosed with S1 steatosis (CAP ≥ 274 dB/m), 255 with advanced fibrosis (LSM ≥ 9·7 kPa). Compared with those in the lowest tertile of EDIP-adherence scores, participants in the highest tertile had 74 % higher odds of steatosis (OR: 1·74, 95 % CI (1·26, 2·41)). Such positive association persisted among never drinkers, or participants who were free of hepatitis B and/or C. Similarly, EDIP was positively associated with CAP in multivariate linear model (P < 0·001). We found a non-significant association of EDIP score with advanced fibrosis or LSM (P = 0·837).
Our findings suggest that a diet score that is associated with inflammatory markers is associated with hepatic steatosis. Reducing or avoiding pro-inflammatory diets intake might be an attractive strategy for fatty liver disease prevention.
Hepatitis E virus infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis, typically self-limiting but occasionally leading to liver failure. Understanding disease progression factors could inform prevention strategies. This study aimed to analyse the characteristics of a large cohort of hospitalised hepatitis E patients in Tianjin, China, and explore factors influencing their progression to liver failure. A total of 1279 hospitalised patients with hepatitis E were included in this cross-sectional study in Tianjin, China. Student's t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test were used for comparisons. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association. Among these 1279 patients, 107 (8.4%) developed liver failure. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.150–2.887, p = 0.011), liver cirrhosis (95% [CI] 2.229–7.224, p < 0.001), and hepatitis B (95% [CI] 1.159–4.512, p = 0.017) were more likely to progress to liver failure. Hepatitis E patients with comorbid DM, liver cirrhosis, or hepatitis B virus co-infection have higher risks of developing liver failure. Hepatitis E vaccination may be recommended for these vulnerable patients to curb disease severity.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
To investigate the effects of combination therapy with and without batroxobin, and the frequency of batroxobin use on the prognosis of profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Hearing recovery in the batroxobin group (231 patients) and non-batroxobin group (56 patients) was compared. The correlation between the number of times batroxobin was used and hearing recovery was analysed.
The decrease in hearing threshold and overall improvement rate in the batroxobin group with hearing loss exceeding 100 dB HL was significantly higher than that in the non-batroxobin group. There was no linear correlation between the number of times batroxobin was used and the overall improvement rate. Using batroxobin two to three times achieved a therapeutic effectiveness plateau.
Batroxobin can improve the efficacy of combination therapy for profound sudden sensorineural hearing loss exceeding 100 dB HL, and using batroxobin two to three times yields the maximum overall improvement rate.
Despite observed ethnic differences in eating patterns and obesity, evidence in China is limited. This study examined ethnic differences in eating patterns and their associations with weight outcomes among multi-ethnic adults in West China. A cross-sectional survey collected self-reported data on demographics, eating behaviours, weight and height in 2021. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were conducted to identify eating patterns and examine their associations with weight outcomes. In total, 4407 subjects aged ≥ 18 years were recruited across seven provinces in West China. Four eating patterns were identified: ‘meat-lover’ – characterised by frequent consumption of meat and dairy products, ‘indulgent’ – by frequent intakes of added salt, sugar, alcohol and pickled food, ‘diversified-eating’ – by frequently consuming food with diversified cooking methods and eating out and ‘nutri-health-concerned’ – by good food hygiene behaviours and reading food labels. Ethnic differences in eating patterns were observed. Compared with Han, Hui were less likely to exhibit meat-lover or diversified-eating patterns; Tibetans were less likely to have meat-lover or nutri-health-concerned patterns; Mongolians were more likely to have indulgent pattern. BMI was positively associated with meat-lover pattern in both genders (exp(β): 1·029; 95 % CI: 1·001, 1·058 for men; 1·018; 1·000, 1·036 for women) and negatively associated with nutri-health-concerned pattern in women (0·983; 0·966, 1·000). Mongolians were two times more likely to be overweight/obese than Han (OR: 3·126; 1·688, 5·790). Considerable ethnic differences existed in eating patterns in West China. Mongolians were more likely to be overweight/obese, which was associated with their indulgent eating patterns. Ethnic-specific healthy eating intervention programs are needed.
To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
Aphids exhibit seasonally alternating asexual and sexual reproductive modes. Different morphs are produced throughout the life cycle. To evaluate morph-specific fitness during reproductive switching, holocyclic Sitobion avenae were induced continuously under short light conditions, and development and reproduction were compared in each morph. Seven morphs, including apterous and alate virginoparae, apterous and alate sexuparae, oviparae, males, and fundatrices, were produced during the life cycle. The greatest proportions of sexuparae, oviparae, males, and virginoparae were in the G1, G2, G3, and G4 generations, respectively. Regardless of asexual or sexual morphs, alate morphs exhibited a marked delay in age at maturity compared with that of apterous morphs. Among the alate morphs, males had the longest age at maturity, followed by sexuparae and virginoparae. Among the apterous morphs, sexuparae were older at maturity than the fundatrices, virginoparae, and oviparae. The nymphs of each morph had equal survival potentials. For the same wing morphs, apterous sexuparae and oviparae exhibited substantial delays in the pre-reproductive period and considerable reductions in fecundity, compared with those of apterous virginoparae and fundatrices, whereas alate sexuparae and alate virginoparae had similar fecundity. The seven morphs exhibited Deevey I survivorship throughout the life cycle. These results suggest that sexual production, particularly in males, has short-term development and reproduction costs. The coexistence of sexual and asexual morphs in sexuparae offspring may be regarded as an adaptive strategy for limiting the risk of low fitness in winter.
This article examines the pricing of a firm’s carbon risk in the corporate bond market. Contrary to the “carbon risk premium” hypothesis, bonds of more carbon-intensive firms earn significantly lower returns. This effect cannot be explained by a comprehensive list of bond characteristics and exposure to known risk factors. Investigating sources of the low carbon alpha, we find the underperformance of bonds issued by carbon-intensive firms cannot be fully explained by divestment from institutional investors. Instead, our evidence is most consistent with investor underreaction to the predictability of carbon intensity for firm cash-flow news, creditworthiness, and environmental incidents.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
Straightplasma channels are widely used to guide relativistic intense laser pulses over several Rayleigh lengths for laser wakefield acceleration. Recently, a curved plasma channel with gradually varied curvature was suggested to guide a fresh intense laser pulse and merge it into a straight channel for staged wakefield acceleration [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 154801 (2018)]. In this work, we report the generation of such a curved plasma channel from a discharged capillary. Both longitudinal and transverse density distributions of the plasma inside the channel were diagnosed by analyzing the discharging spectroscopy. Effects of the gas-filling mode, back pressure and discharging voltage on the plasma density distribution inside the specially designed capillary are studied. Experiments show that a longitudinally uniform and transversely parabolic plasma channel with a maximum channel depth of 47.5 μm and length of 3 cm can be produced, which is temporally stable enough for laser guiding. Using such a plasma channel, a laser pulse with duration of 30 fs has been successfully guided along the channel with the propagation direction bent by 10.4°.
Burn patients are at high risk of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). However, the diagnosis of such infections is complex, resource-intensive, and often delayed. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of CLABSI and develop a prediction model for the infection in burn patients. The study analysed the infection profiles, clinical epidemiology, and central venous catheter (CVC) management of patients in a large burn centre in China from January 2018 to December 2021. In total, 222 burn patients with a cumulative 630 CVCs and 5,431 line-days were included. The CLABSI rate was 23.02 CVCs per 1000 line-days. The three most common bacterial species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 76.09% of isolates were multidrug resistant. Compared with a non-CLABSI cohort, CLABSI patients were significantly older, with more severe burns, more CVC insertion times, and longer total line-days, as well as higher mortality. Regression analysis found longer line-days, more catheterisation times, and higher burn wounds index to be independent risk factors for CLABSI. A novel nomogram based on three risk factors was constructed with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.782–0.898) with a mean absolute error of calibration curve of 0.023. The nomogram showed excellent predictive ability and clinical applicability, and provided a simple, practical, and quantitative strategy to predict CLABSI in burn patients.