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Anisotropic mesh adaptation is studied for linear finite element solution of 3D anisotropic diffusion problems. The 𝕄-uniform mesh approach is used, where an anisotropic adaptive mesh is generated as a uniform one in the metric specified by a tensor. In addition to mesh adaptation, preservation of the maximum principle is also studied. Some new sufficient conditions for maximum principle preservation are developed, and a mesh quality measure is defined to server as a good indicator. Four different metric tensors are investigated: one is the identity matrix, one focuses on minimizing an error bound, another one on preservation of the maximum principle, while the fourth combines both. Numerical examples show that these metric tensors serve their purposes. Particularly, the fourth leads to meshes that improve the satisfaction of the maximum principle by the finite element solution while concentrating elements in regions where the error is large. Application of the anisotropic mesh adaptation to fractured reservoir simulation in petroleum engineering is also investigated, where unphysical solutions can occur and mesh adaptation can help improving the satisfaction of the maximum principle.
Nonnegative directional splittings of anisotropic diffusion operators in the divergence form are investigated. Conditions are established for nonnegative directional splittings to hold in a neighborhood of an arbitrary interior point. The result is used to construct monotone finite difference schemes for the boundary value problem of anisotropic diffusion operators. It is shown that such a monotone scheme can be constructed if the underlying diffusion matrix is continuous on the closure of the physical domain and symmetric and uniformly positive definite on the domain, the mesh spacing is sufficiently small, and the size of finite difference stencil is sufficiently large. An upper bound for the stencil size is obtained, which is determined completely by the diffusion matrix. Loosely speaking, the more anisotropic the diffusion matrix is, the larger stencil is required. An exception is the situation with a strictly diagonally dominant diffusion matrix where a three-by-three stencil is sufficient for the construction of a monotone finite difference scheme. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the theoretical findings.
A weak Galerkin discretization of the boundary value problem of a general anisotropic diffusion problem is studied for preservation of the maximum principle. It is shown that the direct application of the M-matrix theory to the stiffness matrix of the weak Galerkin discretization leads to a strong mesh condition requiring all of the mesh dihedral angles to be strictly acute (a constant-order away from 90 degrees). To avoid this difficulty, a reduced system is considered and shown to satisfy the discrete maximum principle under weaker mesh conditions. The discrete maximum principle is then established for the full weak Galerkin approximation using the relations between the degrees of freedom located on elements and edges. Sufficient mesh conditions for both piecewise constant and general anisotropic diffusion matrices are obtained. These conditions provide a guideline for practical mesh generation for preservation of the maximum principle. Numerical examples are presented.
The numerical solution of the harmonic heat map flow problems with blowup in finite or infinite time is considered using an adaptive moving mesh method. A properly chosen monitor function is derived so that the moving mesh method can be used to simulate blowup and produce accurate blowup profiles which agree with formal asymptotic analysis. Moreover, the moving mesh method has finite time blowup when the underlying continuous problem does. In situations where the continuous problem has infinite time blowup, the moving mesh method exhibits finite time blowup with a blowup time tending to infinity as the number of mesh points increases. The inadequacy of a uniform mesh solution is clearly demonstrated.
A Delaunay-type mesh condition is developed for a linear finite element approximation of two-dimensional anisotropic diffusion problems to satisfy a discrete maximum principle. The condition is weaker than the existing anisotropic non-obtuse angle condition and reduces to the well known Delaunay condition for the special case with the identity diffusion matrix. Numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical findings.
In this article we survey r-adaptive (or moving grid) methods for solving time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). Although these methods have received much less attention than their h- and p-adaptive counterparts, particularly within the finite element community, we review the substantial progress that has been made in developing more robust and reliable algorithms and in understanding the basic principles behind these methods, and we give some numerical examples illustrative of the wide classes of problems for which these methods are suitable alternatives to the traditional ones.
More specifically, we first examine the basic geometric properties of moving meshes in both one and higher spatial dimensions, and discuss the discretization process for PDEs on such moving meshes (both structured and unstructured). In particular, we consider the issues of mesh regularity, equidistribution, alignment, and associated variational methods. An overview is given of the general interpolation error analysis for a function or a truncation error on such an adaptive mesh. Guided by these principles, we show how to design effective moving mesh strategies. We then examine in more detail how these strategies can be implemented in practice. The first class of methods which we consider are based upon controlling mesh density and hence are called position-based methods. These make use of a so-called moving mesh PDE (MMPDE) approach and variational methods, as well as optimal transport methods. This is followed by an analysis of methods which have a more Lagrange-like interpretation, and due to this focus are called velocity-based methods. These include the moving finite element method (MFE), the geometric conservation law (GCL) methods, and the deformation map method. Finally, we present a number of specific types of examples for which the use of a moving mesh method is particularly effective in applications. These include scale-invariant problems, blow-up problems, problems with moving fronts and problems in meteorology. We conclude that, whilst r-adaptive methods are still in their relatively early stages of development, with many outstanding questions remaining, they have enormous potential and indeed can produce an optimal form of adaptivity for many problems.
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