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To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
Tungstate based phosphors have efficient absorption in the UV region and can be used for UV-pumped light emitting. For novel and effective materials and synthesis methods in this system, a series of Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped NaY(WO4)2 phosphors have been synthesized via the molten salt method. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns, scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and photoluminescent spectra have been characterized for the prepared samples. The results show the flux (NaCl) not only decreases the reaction temperature (700–900 °C) than the normal solid state synthesis (∼1000 °C), but also controls the morphology of the products. The shape and size of products can be changed simply and effectively by the reaction conditions, such as temperature and heating time. It is also found that the emission colors of the samples can be tuned from red to green by simply adjusting the doping concentrations of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions under the same wave length excitation, which has potential applications for multi-color display and illumination as a single-component phosphor.
A series of
Dy2Co17−xGax polycrystalline samples with x from 0 to 7 were prepared by arc melting. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicated that these compounds have the hexagonal
Th2Ni17 structure for x≤3 and the rhombohedral
Th2Zn17 structure for 3.5≤x≤7. The lattice parameters a and c increase linearly with the gallium content until x=5.3. With further increasing the gallium content x up to 7, the lattice parameter c slightly decreases, whereas the lattice parameter a increases more quickly than that for 0≤x≤5.3. The unit-cell volume shows an approximately linear increase of 6.1 Å3/Ga for 0≤x≤3.0 and 10.1 Å3/Ga for 3.5≤x≤7.0, respectively. Rietveld refinement of the
Dy2Co11.7Ga5.3 compound reveals that the Ga atoms occupy all the 6c, 9d, 18f, and 18h sites and preferentially occupy the 6c site. The Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization of the rhombohedral
Dy2Co17−xGax compounds decrease almost linearly with increasing Ga content.
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