Praziquantel is widely used for the treatment of human schistosomiasis. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern about the resistance of Schistosoma species to praziquantel. The study described here was designed to evaluate the current susceptibility to praziquantel in S. japonicum in China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a random sample of 4760 subjects from the main endemic foci of China were examined using parasitological stool examination. In total, 584 subjects were identified as being infected with S. japonicum, with a prevalence rate of 12 27%. Among them, 565 stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg. Six weeks post-treatment, among the 505 villagers re-examined, 480 (95 05%) had no detectable S. japonicum eggs. Twenty-one subjects still excreting eggs after the first treatment were treated with praziquantel for the second time. All stool samples, including those from those participants with second treatment were re-examined 6 weeks after the second treatment, and no stool-egg-positives were found. The results indicate that the current efficacy of praziquantel against S. japonicum is still high and has not changed after more than 2 decades of repeated, expanded chemotherapy in the main endemic areas of China. It is suggested that no evidence of tolerance or resistance to praziquantel in S. japonicum was detected in China.