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Microglia, the main immune cell of the central nervous system (CNS), categorized into M1-like phenotype and M2-like phenotype, play important roles in phagocytosis, cell migration, antigen presentation, and cytokine production. As a part of CNS, retinal microglial cells (RMC) play an important role in retinal diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but also retinal neurodegeneration. RMC was regarded as a central role in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss RMC polarization and its possible regulatory factors in early DR, which will provide new targets and insights for early intervention of DR.
Although poverty associated with severe mental illness (SMI) has been documented in many studies, little long-term evidence of social drift exists. This study aimed to unravel the poverty transitions among persons with SMI in a fast change community in China.
Two mental health surveys, using the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10), were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China in 1994 and 2015. A total of 308 persons with SMI identified in 1994 were followed up in 2015. The profiles of poverty transitions were identified and regression modelling methods were applied to determine the predictive factors of poverty transitions.
The poverty rate of persons with SMI increased from 39.9% to 49.4% in 1994 and 2015. A larger proportion of them had fallen into poverty (27.3%) rather than moved out of it (17.8%). Those persons with SMI who had lost work ability, had physical illness and more severe mental disabilities in 1994, as well as those who had experienced negative changes on these factors were more likely to live in persistent poverty or fall into poverty. Higher education level and medical treatment were major protective factors of falling into poverty.
This study shows long-term evidence on the social drift of persons with SMI during the period of rapid social development in China. Further targeted poverty alleviation interventions should be crucial for improving treatment and mental recovery and alleviating poverty related to SMI.
The carbon nanotubes provide large surface that can enhance the gas adsorption properties and increase the conductivity at a lower temperature for gas sensing. The gas sensing properties of the hybrid TiO2/CNTs material are examined in this study. The sol-gel technique is used to prepare a thin layer of nano-TiO2 coated on CNTs. The structure of TiO2/CNTs hybrid materials is identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The granules and surface morphology are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical properties of the hybrid TiO2/CNTs indicate that the operation temperature can be lowered to ambient temperature and this will enhance the gas sensitivity for detecting CO gas. The n-type or p-type behavior of hybrid TiO2/CNTs can be controlled by the coating thickness of hybrid TiO2. According to the image results, the mechanisms of the n-type and p-type behavior of hybrid TiO2/CNTs system are proposed.
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