To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study evaluated the association between inflammatory diets as measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), and inflammation biomarkers, and the development of preeclampsia among the Chinese population. We followed the reporting guidelines of the STROBE statement for observational studies. A total of 466 preeclampsia cases aged over 18 years were recruited between March 2016 and June 2019, and 466 healthy controls were 1:1 ratio matched by age (± 3 years), week of gestation (± 1 week), and gestational diabetes mellitus. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a 79-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed by ELISA kits. The mean E-DII scores were -0.65 ± 1.58 for cases and -1.19 ± 1.47 for controls (P value <0.001). E-DII scores positively correlated with IFN-γ (rs = 0.194, P value = 0.001) and IL-4 (rs = 0.135, P value = 0.021). After multivariable adjustment, E-DII scores were positively related to preeclampsia risk (P trend <0.001). The highest tertile of E-DII was 2.18 times the lowest tertiles (95% CI = 1.52, 3.13). The odds of preeclampsia increased by 30% (95% CI= 18%, 43%, P value <0.001) for each E-DII score increase. The preeclampsia risk was positively associated with IL-2 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11), IL-4 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.54) and TGF-β (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.29). Therefore, proinflammatory diets, corresponding to higher IL-2, IL-4 and TGF-β levels, were associated with increased preeclampsia risk.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
Evidence has demonstrated associations of bipolar disorder (BD) with cognitive impairment, dysregulated proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones.
To compare executive dysfunction, proinflammatory cytokines, and appetite hormones between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs.
This cross-sectional study included young adults aged 18 to 39 years who were diagnosed as having type 1 BD in the first or recurrent episode and a group of age-/sex-matched healthy controls. Data regarding patient characteristics, clinical symptoms, cytokines (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin), and executive function evaluated using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were collected.
A total of 112 participants (38 patients in the multiple-episode BD group, 31 patients in the first-episode BD group, and 43 in the control group) were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients in the multiple-episode BD group performed significantly worse in the WCST (P < .05) and had higher levels of ghrelin (P = .002), and lower levels of CRP (P = .040) than those in the first-episode BD group. Patients with BD had significantly higher TNF-α and ghrelin levels compared with the healthy controls. No significant associations of CRP, TNF-α, and ghrelin levels with executive function were observed.
Profiles in proinflammatory cytokines and appetite hormones as well as executive function significantly differed between patients with first-episode and multiple-episode BDs and controls, which may suggest their potential roles in the clinical stages and pathophysiology of type 1 BD.
Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a plastic and heterogeneous cell population of the tumour microenvironment (TME) that can account for up to 50% of solid tumours. TAMs heterogeneous are associated with different cancer types and stages, different stimulation of bioactive molecules and different TME, which are crucial drivers of tumour progression, metastasis and resistance to therapy. In this context, understanding the sources and regulatory mechanisms of TAM heterogeneity and searching for novel therapies targeting TAM subpopulations are essential for future studies. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence highlighting the redefinition of TAM heterogeneity from three different directions: origins, phenotypes and functions. We notably focus on the causes and consequences of TAM heterogeneity which have implications for the evolution of therapeutic strategies that targeted the subpopulations of TAMs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Despite a disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on minority and under-resourced communities, nearly all COVID-19 resources have only been online in English. A statewide coalition of community and academic partners used community-engaged strategies to provide tailored outreach to diverse populations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The STOP COVID-19 CA statewide team had a workgroup focused on communications. Members of this group represented different sectors, racial/ethnic groups, disciplines, and regions across the state. They had regular meetings to discuss and strategize how to overcome the impact of historic and structural racism on access to COVID-19 resources, including testing, vaccines, and protective equipment. The team also shared regular updates about changes in community concerns and needs as well as new, tailored resources. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Together, the team has been able to reach diverse populations across the state, including providing information about COVID-19 in multiple languages and formats, from radio to virtual town halls to local health fairs. The multiple sites also increased access to vaccines and testing through trusted community leaders and locations, including church-based locations to bringing vaccines and testing directly to workplaces. These community pop-up vaccination sites have helped to vaccinate large numbers of diverse populations, some of whom were initially unsure about getting the vaccine, which has helped to reduce the gaps in community vaccination rates by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This network of community-engaged strategies utilized for rapid COVID-19 response could also be used to for responses to future public health emergencies, addressing chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension), or even other complex issues that affect society and health (e.g., climate change).
Little is known about how sociodemographic and clinical factors affect the caregiving burden of persons with schizophrenia (PwSs) with transition in primary caregivers.
This study aimed to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors on the caregiving burden of PwSs with and without caregiver transition from 1994 to 2015 in rural China.
Using panel data, 206 dyads of PwSs and their primary caregivers were investigated in both 1994 and 2015. The generalised linear model approach was used to examine the predictive effects of sociodemographic factors, severity of symptoms and changes in social functioning on the caregiving burden with and without caregiver transition.
The percentages of families with and without caregiver transition were 38.8% and 61.2%, respectively. Among families without caregiver transition, a heavier burden was significantly related to a larger family size and more severe symptoms in PwSs. Deteriorated functioning of ‘social activities outside the household’ and improved functioning of ‘activity in the household’ were protective factors against a heavy caregiving burden. Among families with caregiver transition, younger age, improved marital functioning, deteriorated self-care functioning, and better functioning of ‘social interest or concern’ were significant risk factors for caregiving burden.
The effects of sociodemographic and clinical correlates on the caregiving burden were different among families with and without caregiver transition. It is crucial to explore the caregiver arrangement of PwSs and the risk factors for burden over time, which will facilitate culture-specific family interventions, community-based mental health services and recovery.
This study aimed to examine the impact of different dietary patterns on stroke outcomes among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in China.
Participants were enrolled by a stratified random cluster sampling method in the study. After collecting dietary data using a quantified FFQ, latent class analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and propensity score matching was used to reduce confounding effects between different dietary patterns. Binary logistic regression and conditional logistic regression were used to analyse the relationship between dietary patterns and stroke in patients with T2DM.
A cross-sectional survey available from December 2013 to January 2014.
A total of 13 731 Chinese residents aged 18 years or over.
Two dietary patterns were identified: 61·2 % of T2DM patients were categorised in the high-fat dietary pattern while 38·8 % of patients were characterised by the balanced dietary pattern. Compared with the high-fat dietary pattern, the balanced dietary pattern was associated with reduced stroke risk (OR = 0·63, 95 %CI 0·52, 0·76, P < 0·001) after adjusting for confounding factors. The protective effect of the balanced model did not differ significantly (interaction P > 0·05).
This study provides sufficient evidence to support the dietary intervention strategies to prevent stroke effectively. Maintaining a balanced dietary pattern, especially with moderate consumption of foods rich in quality protein and fresh vegetables in T2DM patients, might decrease the risk of stroke in China.
A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
Increasing evidence supports sarcopenia as an important parameter for predicting cardiometabolic risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and cardiovascular risk among older community-dwelling adults.
The associations between dynapenia, sarcopenia, and Framingham risk score (FRS) were estimated by multivariate regression models.
Muscle mass is estimated by skeletal muscle mass index using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength is measured by handgrip strength using an analogue isometric dynamometer. Physical performance is measured by gait speed using a 6-m walking distance. Dynapenia was defined as low muscle strength and/or slow gait speed presents with normal muscle mass. The diagnosis of presarcopenia and sarcopenia was based on criteria proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia in 2014. The FRS was used for evaluating 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
Adults aged 65 years and older who attended health examinations from 2015 to 2017 were recruited.
There were totally 709 subjects enrolled in this study. Dynapenic men (n 47) had 17·70 ± 5·08 % FRS and sarcopenic women (n 74) had 7·74 ± 6·06 % FRS. Participants with presarcopenia had the lowest FRS (men: 15·41 ± 5·35 %; women: 5·25 ± 3·70 %). Men with dynapenia had higher FRS than the presarcopenia group with odds ratio (OR) of 2·52 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1·03, 6·14). Women with sarcopenia had significantly higher FRS than the presarcopenia group with OR of 2·81 (95 % CI: 1·09, 7·27).
Older dynapenic men and older sarcopenic women had higher risks of 10-year CHD. Presarcopenic older adults had the lowest CHD risk in both genders.
Athetis lepigone Möschler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a common maize pest in Europe and Asia. However, there is no long-term effective management strategy is available yet to suppress its population. Adults rely heavily on olfactory cues to locate their optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be responsible for recognizing and transporting different odorant molecules to interact with receptor membrane proteins. In this study, the ligand-binding specificities of two AlepPBPs (AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3) for sex pheromone components and host plant (maize) volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assay. The results demonstrated that AlepPBP2 had a high affinity with two pheromones [(Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.11 ± 0.1 μM, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Ki = 1.32 ± 0.15 μM] and ten plant volatiles, including (-)-limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, linalool, benzaldehyde, nonanal, 2-hexanone, 3-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. In contrast, we found that none of these chemicals could bind to AlepPBP3. Our results clearly show no significant differences in the functional characterization of the binding properties between AlepPBP2 and AlepPBP3 to sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. Furthermore, molecular docking was employed for further detail on some crucial amino acid residues involved in the ligand-binding of AlepPBP2. These findings will provide valuable information about the potential protein binding sites necessary for protein-ligand interactions which appear as attractive targets for the development of novel technologies and management strategies for insect pests.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
This paper investigates the monolithic edge-cladding process for the elliptical disk of N31-type Nd-doped phosphate laser glass, which will be utilized under liquid cooling conditions for high-power laser systems. The thermal stress, interface bubbles and residual reflectivity, which are due to high-temperature casting and bonding during the monolithic edge-cladding process, are simulated and determined. The applied mould is optimized to a rectangular cavity mould, and the casting temperature is optimized to 1000°C. The resulting lower bubble density makes the mean residual reflectivity as low as 6.75 × 10−5, which is enough to suppress the amplified spontaneous emission generated in the Nd-glass disk, and the resulting maximum optical retardation is converged to 10.2–13.3 nm/cm, which is a favourable base for fine annealing to achieve the stress specification of less than or equal to 5 nm/cm. After fine annealing at the optimized 520°C, the maximum optical retardation is as low as 4.8 nm/cm, and the minimum transmitted wavefront peak-to-valley value is 0.222 wavelength (632.8 nm). An N31 elliptical disk with the size of 194 mm × 102 mm × 40 mm can be successfully cladded by the optimized monolithic edge-cladding process, whose edge-cladded disk with the size of 200 mm × 108 mm × 40 mm can achieve laser gain one-third higher than that of an N21-type disk of the same size.
To accurately predict propagation dynamics for single or multiple change propagations across different product development stages in a sequential or concurrent way is critical for decision-making of implementing change requests. In this paper, a change propagation dynamic model is built based on the compartmentalization of engineering entities into susceptible engineering entities and affected engineering entities (SA), the ordinary differential equations for describing the rate of affected entities with respect to the total ones and the duration for resolving all the changes for every moment are presented by combining the calculations of change impacts with different split and joint junctions. Considering the difficulty of finding analytical solutions to the differential equations, algorithms for sequential and concurrent simulations of change propagations across different development stages, and random and GA (Genetic Algorithm)-based optimal selections of feasible propagation paths are developed to obtain numerical solutions for single and multiple change requests. Simulation results show that change ripples and blossoms can be observed in both sequential and concurrent change propagations, and these propagation patterns are not sensitive to the initial change effect and the threshold value for propagations, while critical change propagation paths and the number of initiated changes have important effects on both concurrent and sequential change propagation process. It is also demonstrated that concurrent propagation strategy is advantageous for processing single or few of initiated changes since it can shorten product redevelopment time, sequential propagation strategy has an advantage of robustness for handling multiple initiated change requests.
Support vector machines (SVMs) based on brain-wise functional connectivity (FC) have been widely adopted for single-subject prediction of patients with schizophrenia, but most of them had small sample size. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of SVMs based on a large single-site dataset and investigate the effects of demographic homogeneity and training sample size on classification accuracy.
The resting functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) dataset comprised 220 patients with schizophrenia and 220 healthy controls. Brain-wise FCs was calculated for each participant and linear SVMs were developed for automatic classification of patients and controls. First, we evaluated the SVMs based on all participants and homogeneous subsamples of men, women, younger (18–30 years), and older (31–50 years) participants by 10-fold nested cross-validation. Then, we hold out a fixed test set of 40 participants (20 patients and 20 controls) and evaluated the SVMs based on incremental training sample sizes (N = 40, 80, …, 400).
We found that the SVMs based on all participants had accuracy of 85.05%. The SVMs based on male, female, young, and older participants yielded accuracy of 84.66, 81.56, 80.50, and 86.13%, respectively. Although the SVMs based on older subsamples had better performance than those based on all participants, they generalized poorly to younger participants (77.24%). For incremental training sizes, the classification accuracy increased stepwise from 72.6 to 83.3%, with >80% accuracy achieved with sample size >240.
The findings indicate that SVMs based on a large dataset yield high classification accuracy and establish models using a large sample size with heterogeneous properties are recommended for single subject prediction of schizophrenia.