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Field studies were conducted in commercial muscadine vineyards in western North Carolina in 2018 and eastern North Carolina in 2019, 2020, and 2021 to determine tolerance of younger (< 9 yr) and older (≥ 9 yr) bearing muscadine grapevines to 2,4-D directed beneath the crop postemergence (POST). Treatments included 2,4-D choline at 0, 0.53, 1.06, 1.60, and 2.13 kg ae ha−1 applied as a single treatment in May or June (spring) at immediate pre-bloom, and sequential treatments at 0.53 followed by (fb) 0.53, 1.06 fb 1.06, 1.6 fb 1.6, or 2.13 fb 2.13 kg ha−1. The first sequential treatment was applied in spring fb another application of the same amount in July (summer) at pre-veraison. No differences in injury on muscadine grapevines were observed from 2,4-D treatments. Differences among treatments were not observed for yield of younger vines. However, for older vines, a difference due to 2,4-D rate was observed in 2018, when yield was higher when 2,4-D was applied at 1.6 kg ha−1 compared with nontreated grapevines, and when 2,4-D was applied at 0.53 and 2.13 kg ha−1. A rate-by-timing interaction was observed in 2019 when yield was lower from 0.53 kg ha−1 2,4-D summer application compared with all other summer treatments but similar to the nontreated. However, no biological pattern was observed from either of these differences. No differences among treatments were observed for fruit pH, titratable acidity, or soluble solid content of either younger or older vines.
Field studies were conducted on southern highbush blueberry in Elizabethtown and Rocky Point, NC, in 2019, 2020, and 2021 to determine tolerance to 2,4-D choline as a postemergence-directed application. In separate trials for younger and older bearing blueberry bushes, both 2,4-D choline rates and application timing were evaluated. Treatments included 2,4-D choline at 0, 0.53, 1.06, 1.60, and 2.13 kg ae ha–1 applied alone in winter during dormancy, and sequential treatments at 0.53 kg ae ha–1 followed by (fb) 0.53, 1.06 fb 1.06, 1.6 fb 1.6, or 2.13 fb 2.13 kg ae ha–1. The first application of the sequential treatments was applied in winter followed by another application in spring during early green fruit. Injury to blueberry from 2,4-D choline treatments was not observed for either maturity stage, and fruit yield was not affected by any of the treatments. Differences among treatments were not observed for fruit soluble solid content (SSC) in older bushes, or for fruit pH, SSC, and titratable acidity (TA) in younger bushes. In older bushes, fruit pH and TA had rate-by-timing interactions, and TA had a farm-year interaction with differences at Rocky Point in 2019 and Elizabethtown in 2020, but biologically no pattern was observed from the treatments.
Field studies in strawberry grown on polyethylene-mulched raised beds were conducted from 2018 to 2019 and 2019 to 2020 in Clayton, NC, to determine ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Chandler’ strawberry tolerance to 2,4-D directed to the row middle between beds. Treatments included 2,4-D at 0, 0.53, 1.06, 1.60, and 2.13 kg ae ha−1 applied alone and sequential treatments (0.53 followed by [fb] 0.53 or 1.06 fb 1.06 kg ae ha−1). Initial treatments were applied in winter (December 2018 or January 2020) during vegetative growth, and sequential applications were applied in spring (April 2019 or March 2020) during reproductive growth. No differences among treatments were observed for visual foliage injury, strawberry crop canopy, fruit yield, and fruit quality (pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solid content).
Studies were conducted at six locations across North Carolina to determine tolerance of ‘Sunbelt’ grape (bunch grape) and muscadine grape (‘Carlos’, ‘Triumph’, ‘Summit’) to indaziflam herbicide. Treatments included indaziflam (0, 50, 73 g ai ha–1) or flumioxazin (213 g ai ha–1) applied alone in April, and sequential applications of indaziflam (36, 50, 73 g ai ha–1) or flumioxazin (213 g ai ha–1) applied in April followed by the same rate applied in June. No crop injury was observed across locations. Muscadine yield was not affected by herbicide treatments. Yield of ‘Sunbelt’ grape increased with sequential applications of indaziflam at 73 g ha–1 when compared to a single application of indaziflam at 50 g ha–1 or flumioxazin at 213 g ha–1 in 2015. Sequential applications of flumioxazin at 213 g ha–1 reduced ‘Sunbelt’ yield compared to a single application of indaziflam at 73 g ha–1 in 2016. Trunk cross-sectional area was unaffected by herbicide treatments. Fruit quality (soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, and pH) for muscadine and bunch grape was not affected by herbicide treatments. Indaziflam was safe to use at registered rates and could be integrated into weed management programs for southern US vineyards.
A field study was conducted in 2014 and 2015 in an established 5-yr old commercial blackberry planting to determine the effect of vegetation-free strip width (VFSW) on ‘Navaho’ blackberry vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality parameters, identify the optimum VFSW for blackberry plantings in the southeastern USA, and provide practical groundcover management recommendations that can increase the productivity of blackberry plantings. In Fall 2013, tall fescue was seeded in-row and allowed to establish. In Spring 2014, VFSW treatments (0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.8 m) were established in a randomized complete block statistical design with four replications. Blackberry growth measurements included primocane and floricane number, cane diam, individual fruit weight and yield. Fruit quality measurements included, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and pH. Primocane number increased with increasing VFSW in both years. Floricane number increased with increasing VFSW in 2014. Primocane diam decreased with increasing VFSW in 2014 but had a quadratic response in 2015. Berry weight and cumulative yield increased with increasing VFSW in both years. The only berry quality component affected by VFSW was pH, which decreased as VFSW increased. Results indicate that widening the VFSW in blackberry from the current recommendation of 1.2 m to 1.8 m could provide growers a means to increase plant growth, berry weight, and cumulative yield blackberry of a planting.
Field experiments conducted in 1992 and 1993 evaluated transplanted watermelon tolerance to ethalfluralin applied PPI, PRE (before transplanting), and POST (immediately after transplanting) at 1.2 or 2.4 kg ai/ha. Other treatments for comparison included the registered herbicides ethalfluralin POST-directed spray (PDS), ethalfluralin PDS followed by (fb) naptalam POST, bensulide plus naptalam PPI, and a nontreated check. All treatments controlled common lambsquarters and goosegrass 83 to 100% 2 and 6 weeks after treatment (WAT). Watermelon was injured 30 to 77% in 1992 and 14 to 83% in 1993 by ethalfluralin PPI or PRE at 1.2 or 2.4 kg/ha. Ethalfluralin POST was not injurious to watermelon. In 1992, watermelon treated with ethalfluralin POST at 1.2 and 2.4 kg/ha yielded 52 to 62% more fruit than watermelon from the nontreated check. In 1993, yield of transplanted watermelon treated with ethalfluralin POST was similar to that in the nontreated check.
Field studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 at the Sandhills Research Station near Jackson Springs, NC to determine the influence of weed-free strip width (WFSW) on newly planted ‘Navaho' blackberry plant growth, fruit yield, and fruit quality. Treatments consisted of 0-, 0.3-, 0.6-, 1.2-, 1.8-, and 2.4-m WFSW. Predicted blackberry yield increased from 718 to 1,015 kg ha−1 at WFSW of 0 to 2.4 m. The currently recommended WFSW of 1.2 m resulted in a blackberry yield of 1,013 kg ha−1. Predicted individual blackberry fruit weight displayed a positive linear response to WFSW and increased from 3.1 to 3.6 g fruit−1 at WFSW of 0 to 2.4 m. Soluble solids content (SSC) of dull black blackberry fruit was greatest (15.1 Brix) when WFSW was 0 m. Relative to a WFSW of 0 m, SSC was reduced 2.3 to 3.4% as WFSW increased from 0.3 to 2.4 m, respectively. WFSW did not influence shiny black blackberry fruit SSC, nor titratable acidity, sugar-to-acid ratio, or pH of shiny or dull black blackberry fruit or primocane number, length, and stem caliper.
White clover is a weed in apple orchards that competes with the crop; also, flowers of this weed are unwanted attractants of honey bees at times when insecticides, which are harmful to these pollinators, are being applied. In 1997 and 1998, white clover flower head and plant control by clopyralid alone and with 2,4-D and apple tolerance to these herbicides were determined. Treatments consisted of clopyralid at 0.10 and 0.21 kg ae/ha, 2,4-D at 1.1 kg ae/ha, and 2,4-D at 1.1 kg ae/ha plus 0.03 or 0.05 kg ae/ha clopyralid, which were applied 2 wk before full apple bloom and 2 wk after full apple bloom, and a nontreated check. No crop injury occurred with any treatment. All herbicide treatments provided some white clover control and flower head suppression. No differences in white clover bloom reduction were observed through May among treatments containing clopyralid. As summer progressed, the effect of clopyralid rate became more apparent. Clopyralid at 0.21, regardless of application time, provided 99% vegetative control and 100% flower head reduction through July. Clopyralid plus 2,4-D controlled white clover better than 2,4-D alone. However, vegetative control and flower head reduction with clopyralid at reduced rates (0.03 or 0.05 kg ae/ha) plus 2,4-D were not acceptable (76% or less and 78% or less, respectively). Thus, clopyralid at 0.10 and 0.21 kg ae/ha will be necessary for acceptable white clover vegetation control and flower head reduction.
A field experiment was conducted in 1996 and 1997 to determine snap bean tolerance to halosulfuron based on crop injury, height, and yield. Halosulfuron was applied preemergence (PRE), postemergence (POST), and sequentially PRE followed by (fb) POST at 35, 53, and 70 g ai/ha, respectively. For comparison, a hand-weeded check was included. When data were averaged across years and halosulfuron rates, halosulfuron PRE, POST, and PRE fb POST provided similar yellow nutsedge control (74 to 82%) at snap bean harvest. Halosulfuron PRE resulted in 4% snap bean injury at harvest. Similarly, halosulfuron PRE fb POST resulted in 5% injury, while halosulfuron POST caused the most damage at 8%. Snap bean height at harvest was reduced 14% with halosulfuron POST compared to the weed-free check, with only 5 and 6% reduction caused by halosulfuron PRE and PRE fb POST, respectively. Halosulfuron POST reduced yield 39% compared to the weed-free check, while the PRE and PRE fb POST application timings produced yield similar to the check. When averaged across years and halosulfuron application timings, an increase in halosulfuron rate had no effect on yellow nutsedge control or snap bean yield. A linear trend was found for snap bean injury and plant height at harvest with snap bean injury increasing with an increase in halosulfuron rate while snap bean plant height decreased with an increase in halosulfuron rate. Application of halosulfuron PRE is the safest means to control yellow nutsedge in snap bean in North Carolina.
Response of ‘Dixie’, ‘Lemondrop’, ‘Multipik’, ‘Superpik’, and ‘Seneca Prolific’ summer squash to halosulfuron PRE or POST at 0.036, 0.053, and 0.072 kg ai/ha, or halosulfuron PRE fb halosulfuron POST at 0.018 fb 0.018, 0.027 fb 0.027, and 0.036 fb 0.036 kg/ha was field evaluated in 1997 and 1998. All halosulfuron treatments and rates reduced the height of cultivars 17–19% at 6 WAP (weeks after planting) and summer-squash injury (chlorosis and necrosis of crop foliage) was 6, 14, and 11% from halosulfuron PRE, POST, and PRE fb POST, respectively. Early summer-squash flowering was reduced 32–82% by halosulfuron, resulting in reduced early yields. Dixie was the cultivar most tolerant to halosulfuron. Early flowering of Dixie was reduced 32–36% compared to 32–82% for the other cultivars. Marketable yield of summer squash was reduced 20–30% by all rates of halosulfuron when averaged over all application timings. Marketable yield of Seneca Prolific, Superpik, Dixie, Multipik, and Lemondrop was reduced 0–17% by halosulfuron PRE. Halosulfuron POST or PRE fb POST reduced marketable yield of all summer-squash cultivars by 25–46%. Thus, summer squash was not tolerant of POST halosulfuron; however, Dixie, Multipik, Seneca Prolific, and Superpik exhibited tolerance to halosulfuron PRE.
An experiment was conducted at one location in 1999 and two locations in 2000 to determine the critical weed-free period for peach in North Carolina. The cultivars for the three locations were ‘Contender’, ‘Norman’, and ‘Summerprince’. Weed-free intervals of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 wk after peach tree bloom were established. Paraquat at 1.1 kg ai/ha plus nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v was applied every 10 d, after treatments were initiated at peach bloom, to maintain weed-free plots. Large crabgrass, hairy vetch, and smooth crabgrass were the primary weeds in Contender. Horseweed, smooth crabgrass, and large crabgrass were the primary weeds in Norman. Bermudagrass, smooth pigweed, and common lambsquarters were the primary weeds in Summerprince. No differences in trunk cross-sectional area were observed between the weed-free periods. Maintaining the orchard floor weed-free for 12 wk after peach tree bloom resulted in the greatest fruit size (individual fruit weight and diameter), total yield, and fruit number.
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