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Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity that typically develops after the administration of infant formula, suggesting a link between nutritional components and disease development. One of the most significant complications that develops in patients with NEC is severe lung injury. We have previously shown that the administration of a nutritional formula that is enriched in pre-digested triglycrides that do not require lipase action can significantly reduce the severity of NEC in a mouse model. We now hypothesize that this 'pre-digested fat system (PDF)' may reduce NEC-associated lung injury. In support of this hypothesis, we now show that rearing newborn mice on a nutritional formula based on the 'pre-digested fat (PDF) system’ promotes lung development, as evidenced by increased tight junctions and surfactant protein expression. Mice who were administered this 'PDF fat system’ were significantly less vulnerable to the development of NEC-induced lung inflammation, and the administration of the 'PDF fat system’ conferred lung protection. In seeking to define the mechanisms involved, the administration of the PDF system’ significantly enhanced lung maturation and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings suggest that the PDF system protects the development of NEC-induced lung injury through effects on lung maturation and reduced reactive oxygen species in the lung, and also increase lung maturation in non-NEC mice.
Creativity is crucial in design. In recent years, growing computational methods are applied to improve the creativity of design. This paper aims to explore an approach to generate creative design images with specific feature or design style. A Generative Adversarial Network model is applied in the approach to learn the specific design style. The target products will be projected into the latent space of model to transfer their styles and generate images. The generated images combine the features of the specific design style and the features of the target product. In the experiment, the approach using the generated images to inspire the human designer to generate the creative design in according styles. According to the primary verification by participants, the generated images can bring novelty and surprise to participants, which gain the positive impact on human creativity.
Colour is widely utilised as a visual coding system in visual search, but its application under vibration conditions (e.g., in various vehicles) has not been fully explored. This study was designed to examine the effect of colour combinations on performance of visual search tasks conducted in vibration conditions. Forty-eight university students participated in an experiment where they were required to identify target type and location under 24 colour combinations (half in negative polarity and half in positive polarity) and three vibration conditions (static, low, and high). The findings showed that vibration did not significantly affect performance, perceptions, or physiological aspects. Colour combination significantly affected response time, and the participants preferred colour combinations that had the potential to produce better performance. Colour combinations with negative polarity (e.g., yellow on black and white on black) are recommended for presenting search interfaces. These findings are of importance in human–computer interface designs for information display under vibration conditions.
The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) impacts public health dramatically around the world. The demographic characteristics, exposure history, dates of illness onset and dates of confirmed diagnosis were collected from the data of 24 family clusters from Beijing. The characteristics of the cases and the estimated key epidemiologic time-to-event distributions were described. The basic reproductive number (R0) was calculated. Among 89 confirmed COVID-19 patients from 24 family clusters, the median age was 38.0 years and 43.8% were male. The median of incubation period was 5.08 days (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.17–6.21). The median of serial interval was 6.00 days (95% CI 5.00–7.00). The basic reproductive number (R0) was 2.06 (95% CI 2.02–2.08). The median of onset-to-care-seeking days and the median of onset-to-hospital admission days were significantly reduced after 23 January 2020, which implied the enhanced public health awareness among families. With epidemic containment measures in place, the results can inform health authorities about possible extent of epidemic transmission within families. Furthermore, following initiation of interventions, public health measures are not only important for curbing the epidemic spread at the community level but also improve health seeking behaviour at the individual level.
A series of new synthetic armored cables were developed and tested to ensure that they were suitable for use with the RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS), which is a newly designed freezing-in thermal ice probe. The final version of the cable consists of two concentric conductors that can be used as the power and signal lines. Two polyfluoroalkoxy jackets are used for electrical insulation (one for insulation between conductors, and the other for insulation of the outer conductor). The outer insulation layer is coated by polyurethane jacket to seal the connections between the cable and electrical units. The 0.65 mm thick strength member is made from aramid fibers woven together. To hold these aramid fibers in place, a sheathing layer was produced from a polyamide fabric cover net. The outer diameter of the final version of the cable is ~6.1 mm. The permissible bending radius is as low as 17–20 mm. The maximal breaking force under straight tension is ~12.2 kN. The cable weight is only ~0.061 kg m−1. The mechanical and electrical properties and environmental suitability of the cable were determined through laboratory testing and joint testing with the probe.
The Antarctic subglacial drilling rig (ASDR) is designed to recover 105 mm-diameter ice cores up to 1400 m depth and 41.5 mm-diameter bedrock cores up to 2 m in length. In order to ensure safe and convenient drilling, drilling auxiliaries are designed to support fieldwork and servicing. These auxiliaries are subdivided into several systems for power supply, drill tripping in the borehole, ice core and chip processing, and drill servicing and maintenance. The required equipment also includes two generators, a drilling winch with a cable, logging winch with a cable, control desk, pipe handler with a fixed clamp, chip chamber vibrator, centrifuge, emergency devices and fitting and electrical tools. Additionally, several environmental protective measures such as a new liquid-tight casing with a thermal casing shoe and a bailing device for recovering drilling fluid from the borehole were designed. Most of the auxiliaries were tested during the summer of 2018–2019 near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica while drilling to the bedrock to a depth of 198 m.
Drilling to the bedrock of ice sheets and glaciers offers unique opportunities for examining the processes occurring in the bed. Basal and subglacial materials contain important paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental records and provide a unique habitat for life; they offer significant information regarding the sediment deformation beneath glaciers and its effects on the subglacial hydraulic system and geology. The newly developed and tested Antarctic subglacial drilling rig (ASDR) is designed to recover ice and bedrock core samples from depths of up to 1400 m. All of the drilling equipment is installed inside a movable, sledge-mounted, temperature-controlled and wind-protected drilling shelter and workshop. To facilitate helicopter unloading of the research vessel, the shelter and workshop can be disassembled, with individual parts weighing <2–3 tons. The entire ASDR system weighs ~55 tons, including transport packaging. The ASDR is designed to be transported to the chosen site via snow vehicles and would be ready for drilling operations within 2–3 d after arrival. The ASDR was tested during the 2018–2019 summer season near Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica. At the test site, 2-week drilling operations resulted in a borehole that reached bedrock at a depth of 198 m.
Most skarns are found near the pluton or in lithologies containing at least some limestone. However, recent research has shown that neither a pluton nor limestone is necessarily required to form a skarn deposit. The newly discovered Bagenheigeqier Pb–Zn skarn deposit is located in NE China. The skarn and Pb–Zn orebodies occur in volcanic lithologies of the Baiyin’gaolao Formation and are controlled by NE–SW-trending faults. The nearest pluton is a granite porphyry, at a distance of 20–250 m from the orebodies. Five paragenetic stages at Bagenheigeqier are recognized: (I) skarn; (II) oxide; (III) early sulphide; (IV) late sulphide; and (V) late quartz–calcite. The fluid inclusions from stages II to V homogenized at temperatures of 402–452, 360–408, 274–319 and 167–212°C, respectively. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions (δ18OH2O, –12.4‰ to +9.3‰; δDH2O, –156.5‰ to –99.1‰) indicate that the ore-fluids were primarily of magmatic origin, with the proportion of meteoric water increasing during the progression of ore formation. Sulphur isotope values (δ34SVCDT, 1.4–5.5‰), lead isotope values (206Pb/204Pb, 18.184–18.717; 207Pb/204Pb, 15.520–15.875; 208Pb/204Pb, 37.991–38.379) and the initial 187Os/188Os ratios of the pyrite (0.307 ± 0.06) suggest that the ore metals were derived from the granite porphyry and Baiyin’gaolao Formation. Re–Os dating of pyrite intergrown with galena and sphalerite yielded a well-constrained isochron age of 151.2 ± 4.7 Ma, which is coeval with the laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry zircon U–Pb age of 154 ± 1 Ma for the granite porphyry. The deposit was therefore formed during Late Jurassic time.
A new, modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill (IBED) was designed for drilling in firn, ice, debris-rich ice and rock. The upper part of the drill is almost the same for all drill variants and comprises four sections: cable termination, a slip-ring section, an antitorque system and an electronic pressure chamber. The lower part of the IBED comprises an auger core barrel, reamers, a core barrel for ice/debris-ice drilling and a conventional geological single-tube core barrel or custom-made double-tube core barrel. First, the short and full-scale field versions of the IBED were tested at an outdoor testing stand and a testing facility with a 12.5 m-deep ice well. Then, in the 2018–2019 summer season, the IBED was tested in the field at a site ~12 km south of Zhongshan Station, East Antarctica, and a ~6 cm bedrock core was recovered from a 198 m-deep borehole. A total of 18 d was required to penetrate the ice sheet. The retrieved core samples of blue ice, basal ice and bedrock provided valuable information regarding the Earth's paleo-environment.
To slow down the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is important to identify specific symptoms for effective screening. While anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/ageusia have been identified as highly prevalent symptoms, there are wide geographic variations, necessitating the regional evaluation of the prevalence of the symptoms.
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the self-reported symptoms among adults (over 18 years old) who underwent COVID-19 tests at an ambulatory assessment centre. We identified 1,345 patients (102 positive and 1,243 negative) who visited the assessment centre between March 16 and April 15, 2020. We randomly sampled negative patients in a 1:3 ratio. The primary outcome was the prevalence of self-reported anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/ageusia. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between COVID-19 positivity and loss of smell and taste.
Fifty-six of 102 (50%) positive patients and 72 of 306 (23.5%) negative patients completed the survey. Anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/ageusia were more prevalent among COVID-19 positive patients (41.1% v. 4.2%, p < 0.001 for smell and 46.4% v. 5.6%, p < 0.001 for taste). Anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia/ageusia were independently highly associated with COVID-19 positivity (adjusted odds ratios 14.4 and 11.4 for smell and taste, respectively).
In this Canadian study, smell and taste loss may be key symptoms of COVID-19. This evidence can be helpful in the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly settings of limited testing capacity.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) is effective in reducing disability in selected patients with stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO), but access to this treatment is suboptimal.
We examined the proportion of patients with LVO who did not receive EVT, the reasons for non-treatment, and the association between time from onset and probability of treatment.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients with acute stroke and LVO presenting between January 2017 and June 2018. We used multivariable log-binomial models to determine the association between time and probability of treatment with and without adjustment for age, sex, dementia, active cancer, baseline disability, stroke severity, and evidence of ischemia on computerized tomography.
We identified 256 patients (51% female, median age 74 [interquartile range, IQR 63.5, 82.5]), of whom 59% did not receive EVT. The main reasons for not treating with EVT were related to occlusion characteristics or infarct size. The median time from onset to EVT center arrival was longer among non-treated patients (218 minutes [142, 302]) than those who were treated (180 minutes [104, 265], p = 0.03). Among patients presenting within 6 hours of onset, the relative risk (RR) of receiving EVT decreased by 3% with every 10-minute delay in arrival to EVT center (adjusted RR 0.97 CI95 [0.95, 0.99]). This association was not found in the overall cohort.
The proportion of patients with acute stroke and confirmed LVO who do not undergo EVT is substantial. Minimizing delays in arrival to EVT center may optimize the delivery of this treatment.
β-Glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolaemic individuals for years. However, people have paid little attention to the effects of β-glucan in populations with mild hypercholesterolaemia as well as the various delivering matrices. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyse the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library, a total of twenty-one randomised controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated that consuming a dose of ≥3 g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce total cholesterol (TC) (−0·27 mmol/l, 95 % CI −0·33, −0·21, P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (−0·26 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·32, −0·20, P < 0·001) compared with the control group in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TAG (−0·03 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·11, 0·06, P = 0·521) and HDL-cholesterol (0·01 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·03, 0·04, P = 0·777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-cholesterol for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals; furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid products’ and ‘liquid products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into were ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second and third positions, respectively.
In order to improve the training efficiency and establish a multi-person cooperative training simulation system, including “virtual human,” in the process of virtual reality-based astronaut training, it is necessary to plan the velocity at which astronauts carry the target object. A velocity planning algorithm, combining a traditional six-stage acceleration/deceleration algorithm, based on a time-discrete model with high-order dynamic constraints, considering the elastic damping torque of the space suit, is proposed. The described algorithm is verified on MATLAB to prove its feasibility. Compared to other algorithms, the planning time of the proposed algorithm is significantly reduced.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known and fundamental topic for autonomous robot navigation. Existing solutions include the FastSLAM family-based approaches which are based on Rao–Blackwellized particle filter. The FastSLAM methods slow down greatly when the number of landmarks becomes large. Furthermore, the FastSLAM methods use a fixed number of particles, which may result in either not enough algorithms to find a solution in complex domains or too many particles and hence wasted computation for simple domains. These issues result in reduced performance of the FastSLAM algorithms, especially on embedded devices with limited computational capabilities, such as commonly used on mobile robots. To ease the computational burden, this paper proposes a modified version of FastSLAM called Adaptive Computation SLAM (ACSLAM), where particles are predicted only by odometry readings, and are updated only when an expected measurement has a maximum likelihood. As for the states of landmarks, they are also updated by the maximum likelihood. Furthermore, ACSLAM uses the effective sample size (ESS) to adapt the number of particles for the next generation. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed ACSLAM performed 40% faster than FastSLAM 2.0 and also has higher accuracy.
Coastal lake sediments are valuable paleoclimate archives provided that they can be accurately dated. Here, we report radiocarbon ages of bulk sediment organic matter (OM), plants, shells, particulate OM, and dissolved OM from coastal lakes in Florida. Bulk sediment OM yielded ages that are consistently older than contemporaneous plants and shells, indicating significant radiocarbon deficiencies in sedimentary OM in these lakes. The data show that the OM radiocarbon deficiency varies over time and with location, making it impossible to determine a proper correction factor for radiocarbon ages of bulk sediments from these lakes. As a result, we consider ages obtained from bulk sediment OM from these lakes unreliable. The age reversals in bulk sediment OM observed in the sediment cores are likely caused by rapid increases in erosion and sedimentation resulting from large storm events. The data also show that sedimentation rate can vary considerably within a given lake, implying that an age-depth model established for one core cannot be directly applied to other cores despite their close proximity. Analyses of shells from one of the lakes suggest that fresh/brackish-water shells may serve as a good substrate for radiocarbon dating owing to a small reservoir effect on inorganic carbon.
Precious metals represent some of the least abundant elements in the earth’s crust. There is an urgent need to maximize the utilization efficiency of these metals and thereby attain affordable and sustainable products. One approach for achieving this goal is based on the development of hollow nanocrystals with a well-controlled surface structure, together with a wall thickness kept below 2 nm, or roughly 10 layers of atoms. The hollow structure eliminates the waste of interior atoms and creates an inner surface, while the controllable surface structures contribute to the optimization of catalytic activity and selectivity. In this article, we begin with a brief introduction to two methods that have been developed for the synthesis of hollow nanocrystals: the first relying on the galvanic replacement with a sacrificial template, and the second involving layer-by-layer deposition of metal atoms followed by etching. We then showcase some remarkable properties and applications of this novel class of nanostructures, including their use as effective catalysts for energy conversion, photoresponsive carriers for controlled release and drug delivery, and theranostic agents. A discussion of the existing barriers to their commercialization is also presented.
The TiCxN1−x(001)/TiC(001) interface was studied by the first-principles method to provide the theoretical basis for developing TiCxN1−x/TiC coatings. The partial density of state (PDOS), charge density, charge density difference, and Mulliken population analysis were utilized to investigate the bonding nature and the electronic characteristic of the TiC0.25N0.75/TiC interface. The corresponding results indicate that the bonding nature at the interface is ionic and covalent characteristics, which also exist in bulk materials. The extreme similarity of PDOS among interfacial C, N, and Ti atoms and their bulk counterparts reveals that the electronic structure transition at the interface is smooth. The results of Mulliken population analysis and plots of charge density and charge density difference demonstrate that the charge increased for C in the TiC side is less than that for N in the TiC0.25N0.75 side, which reveals that the ionic bond in TiC0.25N0.75 is stronger than that in TiC. Therefore, TiC0.25N0.75 coating can be an alternative choice to combine with TiC coating in the actual production process of multilayer coatings.
On August 12, 2015, a hazardous chemical explosion occurred in the Tianjin Port of China. The explosions resulted in 165 deaths, 8 missing people, injuries to thousands of people. We present the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the explosions and summarize the lessons that can be learned.
This study was a retrospective analysis of the responses of emergency medical services and hospitals to the Tianjin explosions. Data on injuries, outcomes, and patient flow were obtained from the government and the hospitals.
A total of 46 ambulances and 143 prehospital care professionals were dispatched to the scene, and 198 wounded were transferred to hospitals by ambulance. More than 4000 wounded casualties surged into hospitals, and 798 wounded were admitted. Both emergency medical services and hospitals were quick and successful in the early stage of the explosions. The strategy of 4 centralizations (4Cs) for medical services management in a mass casualty event was successfully applied.
The risk of accidental events has increased in recent years. We should take advantage of the lessons learned from the explosions and apply these in future disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 411–414)